Volume 614, June 2018
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||06 June 2018|
MACS J0416.1–2403: Impact of line-of-sight structures on strong gravitational lensing modelling of galaxy clusters
Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik,
Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1,
2 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
3 Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
4 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy
5 Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
6 University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, 81679 Munich, Germany
7 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy
8 Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
9 Osservatorio di Bologna INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
10 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
11 Pyörrekuja 5 A, 04300 Tuusula, Finland
Accepted: 11 December 2017
Exploiting the powerful tool of strong gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters to study the highest-redshift Universe and cluster mass distributions relies on precise lens mass modelling. In this work, we aim to present the first attempt at modelling line-of-sight (LOS) mass distribution in addition to that of the cluster, extending previous modelling techniques that assume mass distributions to be on a single lens plane. We have focussed on the Hubble Frontier Field cluster MACS J0416.1–2403, and our multi-plane model reproduces the observed image positions with a rms offset of ~0.′′53. Starting from this best-fitting model, we simulated a mock cluster that resembles MACS J0416.1–2403 in order to explore the effects of LOS structures on cluster mass modelling. By systematically analysing the mock cluster under different model assumptions, we find that neglecting the lensing environment has a significant impact on the reconstruction of image positions (rms ~0.′′3); accounting for LOS galaxies as if they were at the cluster redshift can partially reduce this offset. Moreover, foreground galaxies are more important to include into the model than the background ones. While the magnification factor of the lensed multiple images are recovered within ~10% for ~95% of them, those ~5% that lie near critical curves can be significantly affected by the exclusion of the lensing environment in the models. In addition, LOS galaxies cannot explain the apparent discrepancy in the properties of massive sub-halos between MACS J0416.1–2403 and N-body simulated clusters. Since our model of MACS J0416.1–2403 with LOS galaxies only reduced modestly the rms offset in the image positions, we conclude that additional complexities would be needed in future models of MACS J0416.1–2403.
Key words: gravitational lensing: strong / galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: clusters: individual: MACS J0416.1–2403 / dark matter
© ESO 2018
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.