Volume 645, January 2021
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||27 January 2021|
A new high-precision strong lensing model of the galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1−2403
Robust characterization of the cluster mass distribution from VLT/MUSE deep observations⋆
INAF – OAS, Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, via Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy
2 Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
3 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
4 Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
5 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy
6 Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Jagtvej 128, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
7 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
8 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy
9 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 50125 Firenze, Italy
Accepted: 3 November 2020
We present a new high-precision parametric strong lensing model of the galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1−2403, at z = 0.396, which takes advantage of the MUSE Deep Lensed Field (MDLF), with 17.1 h integration in the northeast region of the cluster, and Hubble Frontier Fields data. We spectroscopically identify 182 multiple images from 48 background sources at 0.9 < z < 6.2, and 171 cluster member galaxies. Several multiple images are associated to individual clumps in multiply lensed resolved sources. By defining a new metric, which is sensitive to the gradients of the deflection field, we show that we can accurately reproduce the positions of these star-forming knots despite their vicinity to the model critical lines. The high signal-to-noise ratio of the MDLF spectra enables the measurement of the internal velocity dispersion of 64 cluster galaxies, down to mF160W = 22. This allowed us to independently estimate the contribution of the subhalo mass component of the lens model from the measured Faber-Jackson scaling relation. Our best reference model, which represents a significant step forward compared to our previous analyses, was selected from a comparative study of different mass parametrizations. The root-mean-square displacement between the observed and model-predicted image positions is only 0.40″, which is 33% smaller than in all previous models. The mass model appears to be particularly well constrained in the MDLF region. We characterize the robustness of the magnification map at varying distances from the model critical lines and the total projected mass profile of the cluster.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: general / gravitational lensing: strong / cosmology: observations / dark matter / galaxies: kinematics and dynamics
© ESO 2021
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