Issue 
A&A
Volume 634, February 2020



Article Number  C1  
Number of page(s)  19  
Section  Interstellar and circumstellar matter  
DOI  https://doi.org/10.1051/00046361/201732276e  
Published online  29 January 2020 
Determining the effects of clumping and porosity on the chemistry in a nonuniform AGB outflow (Corrigendum)
^{1}
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute of Astronomy,
KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D,
3001
Leuven,
Belgium
email: marie.vandesande@kuleuven.be
^{2}
Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast
BT7 1NN,
UK
^{3}
Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam,
Science Park 904, PO Box 94249,
1090 GE
Amsterdam,
The Netherlands
^{4}
School of Chemistry, University of Leeds,
Leeds
LS2 9JT,
UK
^{5}
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London,
Gower Street,
London
WC1E 6BT,
UK
Key words: astrochemistry / molecular processes / circumstellar matter / stars: AGB and postAGB / ISM: molecules / errata, addenda
When calculating the models discussed in the article, CO selfshielding was erroneously not taken into account. The CO photodissociation rates are therefore smaller than those used in the article. The lower photodissociation rate leads to a lower abundance of C and O close to the star, which influences our results. While clumping and porosity still affects the chemistry throughout the outflow, the formation of Cbearing species in Orich outflows and vice versa is not as large, as their formation depends on the abundance of the deficient element. The chemistry of N and Sbearing species is largely unaffected.
Figures 4 and 5 show the abundance profiles for the one and twocomponent Orich outflows. The corresponding column densities are listed in Tables 4 and 5, where changes larger than one order of magnitude are marked in boldface. While the abundance of NH_{3} is largely unaffected, the peak fractional abundances of HCN and CS decrease from 10^{−7} to 10^{−10} relative to H_{2}, which does not correspond to observations of HCN and CS in Orich outflows. The abundance of HCN and CS throughout the outflow are, however, still affected by clumping.
Figures 6 and 7 show the abundance profiles for the one and twocomponent Crich outflows. The corresponding column densities are listed in Tables 6 and 7. The NH_{3} abundance profile is again largely unaffected. The peak fractional abundance of H_{2} O decreases from 10^{−5} to 10^{−8} relative to H_{2}, that of H_{2} S remains at ~ 10^{−8} relative to H_{2}. The maximum abundance of 10^{−8} relative to H_{2} for H_{2} O corresponds to the lower end of the range of the H_{2}O abundance in Crich outflows (Lombaert et al. 2016). Because of the lower C^{+} abundance, the abundance profiles of H_{2}O and H_{2}S do not show the secondary peak towards the end of the intermediate region.
The corrected abundance profiles of the additional molecules (Appendix E) for the one and twocomponent Orich outflows are shown in Figs. E.1 and E.2 for the Orich outflows. The corresponding column densities are listed in Tables E.1 and E.2. The CH_{4} abundance in the inner region increases up to an order of magnitude, in contrast to the previous increase of four orders of magnitude, up to 10^{−6} relative to H_{2}. The overall H_{2}CO abundance has decreased, now reaching up to 10^{−11} relative to H_{2} with an increase of about an order of magnitude caused by clumping at the end of the intermediate wind. The increase in inner wind abundance of up to four orders of magnitude is not present. Similarly, the C_{2}H_{2} and CN overall abundance has decreased by up to two orders of magnitude. The abundance of C_{2}H_{2} does not increase relative to the smooth outflow in the inner wind, and therefore does not reach up to 10^{−8} relative to H_{2} in this region, while the increase in CN abundance has decreased from 10^{−7} to 10^{−11} relative to H_{2}. The behaviour of the parent species SO is largely unaffected.
Figures E.3 and E.4 show the corrected abundance profiles of the additional molecules for the one and twocomponent Crich outflows. The corresponding column densities are listed in Tables E.3 and E.4. The overall OH abundance decreases by up to two orders of magnitude. Clumping does not lead to a peak abundance in the inner wind of 10^{−7} relative to H_{2}, but still leads to an increase of up to an order of magnitude. The overall H_{2}CO abundance has decreased by up to two order of magnitude. Clumping leads to an increase in the inner wind abundance, although also two orders magnitude lower. The abundances of HC_{3}N, CH_{3}CN, and C_{4}H_{2} are largely unaffected.
The corrected abundance profiles of Appendix F, on the predictability of the models, are shown in Figs. F.1 and F.2 for the Orich outflows. The corresponding column densities are listed in Tables F.1 and F.2. Although the N_{2}O peak abundance has decreased by an order of magnitude, clumping still causes an increase of up to five orders of magnitude. The peak C_{2}N abundance has decreased by more than two orders of magnitude. While clumping causes an increase of up to an order of magnitude in the outer wind, the peak inner wind abundance drops from 10^{−9} to 10^{−16} relative to H_{2}. The abundance profiles of C_{3}H and C_{3}H_{2} show a similar behaviour. The OCS abundance profile does not show a peak towards the end of the intermediate outflow. Clumping can cause an increase of up to an order of magnitude to ~ 10^{−10} relative to H_{2} in the intermediate outflow, in contrast to abundances up to 10^{−7} relative to H_{2} in the inner wind.
Figures F.3 and F.4 show the corrected abundance profiles of Appendix F for the one and twocomponent Crich outflows. The corresponding column densities are listed in Tables F.3 and F.4. Clumping can cause an increase of up to four orders of magnitude in the inner wind CO_{2}, although the peak abundance drops from 10^{−7} to 10^{−9} relative to H_{2}. The SO_{2} abundance is drastically affected: the peak abundance of the smooth outflow goes down by four orders of magnitude. Clumping can cause an increase of up to three orders of magnitude, although only up to 10^{−13} relative to H_{2} in contrast with the previous10^{−9} relative to H_{2}. While the overall HC_{9}N abundance has decreased by more than an order of magnitude, clumping can still cause an increase in peak abundance of up to three orders of magnitude. The abundance profiles of NO and OCS show similar behaviour, although clumping now increases the peak abundance only up to one to two orders of magnitude, respectively, in contrast with the previous increase of two to four orders of magnitude.
When comparing our results to those of Agúndez et al. (2010), the models still differ in shape, but our models now produce lower abundances of Cbearing species in Orich outflows and vice versa than Agúndez et al. (2010). We note that our model differs from that of Agúndez et al. (2010) not only in implementation of the density distribution and alteration of the UV radiation field, but also in the chemical reaction network used. Our models still produce NH_{3} with a larger abundance than TE, unlike nonequilibrium chemistry models.
Fig. 4
Abundance of NH_{3} (upper panels), HCN (middle panels), and CS (lower panels) relative to H_{2} throughout a onecomponent Orich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm, porosity length h_{*} = 1 × 10^{14}, 2.5 × 10^{13}, 1.25 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l_{*} = 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14}, 5 × 10^{13}, 2.5 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 1 × 10^{15}, 2.5 × 10^{14}, 1.25 × 10^{14} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm (green, solid) and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 
Fig. 5
Abundance of NH_{3} (upper panels), HCN (middle panels), and CS (lower panels) relative to H_{2} throughout a twocomponent Orich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l_{*} = 10^{13} cm. Blue lines: porosity length h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14} cm. Green lines: h_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. Red lines: h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the interclump and smooth outflow f_{ic} = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.5. We note that the models with f_{vol} = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the onecomponent outflows with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*}5 × 10^{12} cm and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 
Column density [cm^{−2}] of NH_{3}, HCN, and CS in a smooth Orich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific onecomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of NH_{3}, HCN, and CS in a smooth Orich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific twocomponent outflows.
Fig. 6
Abundance of NH_{3} (upper panels), H_{2}O (middle panels), and H_{2}S (lower panels) relative to H_{2} throughout a onecomponent Crich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm, porosity length h_{*} = 1 × 10^{14}, 2.5 × 10^{13}, 1.25 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l_{*} = 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14}, 5 × 10^{13}, 2.5 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 1 × 10^{15}, 2.5 × 10^{14}, 1.25 × 10^{14} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm (green, solid) and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 
Fig. 7
Abundance of NH_{3} (upper panels), H_{2}O (middle panels), and H_{2}S (lower panels) relative to H_{2} throughout a twocomponent Crich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l_{*} = 10^{13} cm. Blue lines: porosity length h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14} cm. Green lines: h_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. Red lines: h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the interclump and smooth outflow f_{ic} = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.5. We note that the models with f_{vol} = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the onecomponent outflows with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 
Column density [cm^{−2}] of NH_{3}, H_{2}O, and H_{2}S in a smooth Crich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific onecomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of NH_{3}, H_{2}O, and H_{2}S in a smooth Crich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific twocomponent outflows.
Fig. E.1
Abundance of CH_{4}, H_{2}CO, C_{2}H_{2}, SO and CN relative to H_{2} throughout onecomponent Orich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm, porosity length h_{*} = 1 × 10^{14}, 2.5 × 10^{13}, 1.25 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l_{*} = 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14}, 5 × 10^{13}, 2.5 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 1 × 10^{15}, 2.5 × 10^{14}, 1.25 × 10^{14} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm (green, solid) and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 
Fig. E.2
Abundance of CH_{4}, H_{2}CO, C_{2}H_{2}, SO, and CN relative to H_{2} throughout a twocomponent Orich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l_{*} = 10^{13} cm. Blue lines: porosity length h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14} cm. Green lines: h_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. Red lines: h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the interclump and smooth outflow f_{ic} = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.5. We note that the models with f_{vol} = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the onecomponent outflows with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 
Column density [cm^{−2}] of CH_{4}, H_{2}CO, C_{2}H_{2}, SO, and CN in a smooth Orich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific onecomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of CH_{4}, H_{2}CO, C_{2}H_{2}, SO, and CN in a smooth Orich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific twocomponent outflows.
Fig. E.3
Abundance of OH, H_{2}CO, HC_{3}N, CH_{3}CN, and C_{4}H_{2} relative to H_{2} throughout a onecomponent Crich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm, porosity length h_{*} = 1 × 10^{14}, 2.5 × 10^{13}, 1.25 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l_{*} = 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14}, 5 × 10^{13}, 2.5 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 1 × 10^{15}, 2.5 × 10^{14}, 1.25 × 10^{14} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm (green, solid) and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 
Fig. E.4
Abundance of OH, H_{2}CO, HC_{3}N, CH_{3}CN, and C_{4}H_{2} relative to H_{2} throughout a twocomponent Crich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l_{*} = 10^{13} cm. Blue lines: porosity length h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14} cm. Green lines: h_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. Red lines: h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the interclump and smooth outflow f_{ic} = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.5. We note that the models with f_{vol} = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the onecomponent outflows with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 
Column density [cm^{−2}] of OH, H_{2}CO, HC_{3}N, CH_{3}CN, and C_{4}H_{2} in a smooth Crich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific onecomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of OH, H_{2}CO, HC_{3}N, CH_{3}CN, and C_{4}H_{2} in a smooth Crich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific twocomponent outflows.
Fig. F.1
Abundance of N_{2}O, C_{2}N, C_{3}H, C_{3}H_{2} and OCS relative to H_{2} throughout a onecomponent Orich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm, porosity length h_{*} = 1 × 10^{14}, 2.5 × 10^{13}, 1.25 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l_{*} = 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14}, 5 × 10^{13}, 2.5 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 1 × 10^{15}, 2.5 × 10^{14}, 1.25 × 10^{14} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm (green, solid) and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 
Fig. F.2
Abundance of N_{2}O, C_{2}N, C_{3}H, C_{3}H_{2} and OCS relative to H_{2} throughout a twocomponent Orich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l_{*} = 10^{13} cm. Blue lines: porosity length h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14} cm. Green lines: h_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. Red lines: h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the interclump and smooth outflow f_{ic} = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.5. We note that the models with f_{vol} = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the onecomponent outflows with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 
Column density [cm^{−2}] of N_{2}O, C_{2}N, C_{3}H, C_{3}H_{2} and OCS in a smooth Orich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific onecomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of N_{2}O, C_{2}N, C_{3}H, C_{3}H_{2} and OCS in a smooth Orich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific twocomponent outflows.
Fig. F.3
Abundance of CO_{2}, SO_{2}, HC_{9}N, NO, and OCS relative to H_{2} throughout a onecomponent Crich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm, porosity length h_{*} = 1 × 10^{14}, 2.5 × 10^{13}, 1.25 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l_{*} = 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14}, 5 × 10^{13}, 2.5 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 1 × 10^{15}, 2.5 × 10^{14}, 1.25 × 10^{14} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm (green, solid) and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 
Fig. F.4
Abundance of CO_{2}, SO_{2}, HC_{9}N, NO, and OCS relative to H_{2} throughout a twocomponent Crich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l_{*} = 10^{13} cm. Blue lines: porosity length h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14} cm. Green lines: h_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. Red lines: h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the interclump and smooth outflow f_{ic} = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.5. We note that the models with f_{vol} = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the onecomponent outflows with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 
Column density [cm^{−2}] of CO_{2}, SO_{2}, HC_{9}N, NO, and OCS in a smooth Crich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific onecomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of CO_{2}, SO_{2}, HC_{9}N, NO, and OCS in a smooth Crich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific twocomponent outflows.
References
 Agúndez, M., Cernicharo, J., & Guélin, M. 2010, ApJ, 724, L133 [NASA ADS] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
 Lombaert, R., Decin, L., Royer, P., et al. 2016, A&A, 588, A124 [NASA ADS] [CrossRef] [EDP Sciences] [Google Scholar]
© ESO 2020
All Tables
Column density [cm^{−2}] of NH_{3}, HCN, and CS in a smooth Orich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific onecomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of NH_{3}, HCN, and CS in a smooth Orich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific twocomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of NH_{3}, H_{2}O, and H_{2}S in a smooth Crich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific onecomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of NH_{3}, H_{2}O, and H_{2}S in a smooth Crich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific twocomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of CH_{4}, H_{2}CO, C_{2}H_{2}, SO, and CN in a smooth Orich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific onecomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of CH_{4}, H_{2}CO, C_{2}H_{2}, SO, and CN in a smooth Orich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific twocomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of OH, H_{2}CO, HC_{3}N, CH_{3}CN, and C_{4}H_{2} in a smooth Crich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific onecomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of OH, H_{2}CO, HC_{3}N, CH_{3}CN, and C_{4}H_{2} in a smooth Crich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific twocomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of N_{2}O, C_{2}N, C_{3}H, C_{3}H_{2} and OCS in a smooth Orich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific onecomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of N_{2}O, C_{2}N, C_{3}H, C_{3}H_{2} and OCS in a smooth Orich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific twocomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of CO_{2}, SO_{2}, HC_{9}N, NO, and OCS in a smooth Crich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific onecomponent outflows.
Column density [cm^{−2}] of CO_{2}, SO_{2}, HC_{9}N, NO, and OCS in a smooth Crich outflow with different massloss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific twocomponent outflows.
All Figures
Fig. 4
Abundance of NH_{3} (upper panels), HCN (middle panels), and CS (lower panels) relative to H_{2} throughout a onecomponent Orich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm, porosity length h_{*} = 1 × 10^{14}, 2.5 × 10^{13}, 1.25 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l_{*} = 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14}, 5 × 10^{13}, 2.5 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 1 × 10^{15}, 2.5 × 10^{14}, 1.25 × 10^{14} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm (green, solid) and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 

In the text 
Fig. 5
Abundance of NH_{3} (upper panels), HCN (middle panels), and CS (lower panels) relative to H_{2} throughout a twocomponent Orich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l_{*} = 10^{13} cm. Blue lines: porosity length h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14} cm. Green lines: h_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. Red lines: h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the interclump and smooth outflow f_{ic} = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.5. We note that the models with f_{vol} = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the onecomponent outflows with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*}5 × 10^{12} cm and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 

In the text 
Fig. 6
Abundance of NH_{3} (upper panels), H_{2}O (middle panels), and H_{2}S (lower panels) relative to H_{2} throughout a onecomponent Crich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm, porosity length h_{*} = 1 × 10^{14}, 2.5 × 10^{13}, 1.25 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l_{*} = 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14}, 5 × 10^{13}, 2.5 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 1 × 10^{15}, 2.5 × 10^{14}, 1.25 × 10^{14} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm (green, solid) and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 

In the text 
Fig. 7
Abundance of NH_{3} (upper panels), H_{2}O (middle panels), and H_{2}S (lower panels) relative to H_{2} throughout a twocomponent Crich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l_{*} = 10^{13} cm. Blue lines: porosity length h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14} cm. Green lines: h_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. Red lines: h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the interclump and smooth outflow f_{ic} = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.5. We note that the models with f_{vol} = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the onecomponent outflows with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 

In the text 
Fig. E.1
Abundance of CH_{4}, H_{2}CO, C_{2}H_{2}, SO and CN relative to H_{2} throughout onecomponent Orich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm, porosity length h_{*} = 1 × 10^{14}, 2.5 × 10^{13}, 1.25 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l_{*} = 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14}, 5 × 10^{13}, 2.5 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 1 × 10^{15}, 2.5 × 10^{14}, 1.25 × 10^{14} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm (green, solid) and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 

In the text 
Fig. E.2
Abundance of CH_{4}, H_{2}CO, C_{2}H_{2}, SO, and CN relative to H_{2} throughout a twocomponent Orich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l_{*} = 10^{13} cm. Blue lines: porosity length h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14} cm. Green lines: h_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. Red lines: h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the interclump and smooth outflow f_{ic} = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.5. We note that the models with f_{vol} = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the onecomponent outflows with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 

In the text 
Fig. E.3
Abundance of OH, H_{2}CO, HC_{3}N, CH_{3}CN, and C_{4}H_{2} relative to H_{2} throughout a onecomponent Crich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm, porosity length h_{*} = 1 × 10^{14}, 2.5 × 10^{13}, 1.25 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l_{*} = 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14}, 5 × 10^{13}, 2.5 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 1 × 10^{15}, 2.5 × 10^{14}, 1.25 × 10^{14} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm (green, solid) and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 

In the text 
Fig. E.4
Abundance of OH, H_{2}CO, HC_{3}N, CH_{3}CN, and C_{4}H_{2} relative to H_{2} throughout a twocomponent Crich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l_{*} = 10^{13} cm. Blue lines: porosity length h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14} cm. Green lines: h_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. Red lines: h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the interclump and smooth outflow f_{ic} = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.5. We note that the models with f_{vol} = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the onecomponent outflows with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 

In the text 
Fig. F.1
Abundance of N_{2}O, C_{2}N, C_{3}H, C_{3}H_{2} and OCS relative to H_{2} throughout a onecomponent Orich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm, porosity length h_{*} = 1 × 10^{14}, 2.5 × 10^{13}, 1.25 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l_{*} = 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14}, 5 × 10^{13}, 2.5 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 1 × 10^{15}, 2.5 × 10^{14}, 1.25 × 10^{14} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm (green, solid) and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 

In the text 
Fig. F.2
Abundance of N_{2}O, C_{2}N, C_{3}H, C_{3}H_{2} and OCS relative to H_{2} throughout a twocomponent Orich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l_{*} = 10^{13} cm. Blue lines: porosity length h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14} cm. Green lines: h_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. Red lines: h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the interclump and smooth outflow f_{ic} = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.5. We note that the models with f_{vol} = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the onecomponent outflows with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 

In the text 
Fig. F.3
Abundance of CO_{2}, SO_{2}, HC_{9}N, NO, and OCS relative to H_{2} throughout a onecomponent Crich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm, porosity length h_{*} = 1 × 10^{14}, 2.5 × 10^{13}, 1.25 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l_{*} = 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14}, 5 × 10^{13}, 2.5 × 10^{13} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm, h_{*} = 1 × 10^{15}, 2.5 × 10^{14}, 1.25 × 10^{14} cm for f_{vol} = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm (green, solid) and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 

In the text 
Fig. F.4
Abundance of CO_{2}, SO_{2}, HC_{9}N, NO, and OCS relative to H_{2} throughout a twocomponent Crich outflow with different massloss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors f_{vol}. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l_{*} = 10^{13} cm. Blue lines: porosity length h_{*} = 2 × 10^{14} cm. Green lines: h_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. Red lines: h_{*} = 2.5 × 10^{13} cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the interclump and smooth outflow f_{ic} = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: f_{ic} = 0.5. We note that the models with f_{vol} = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the onecomponent outflows with f_{vol} = 0.2, l_{*} = 5 × 10^{12} cm and f_{vol} = 0.4, l_{*} = 1 × 10^{13} cm. For reference, 1 R_{*} = 5 × 10^{13} cm. 

In the text 
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