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Erratum
This article is an erratum for: [this article]

Issue
A&A
Volume 634, February 2020
Article Number C1
Number of page(s) 19
Section Interstellar and circumstellar matter
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201732276e
Published online 29 January 2020

When calculating the models discussed in the article, CO self-shielding was erroneously not taken into account. The CO photodissociation rates are therefore smaller than those used in the article. The lower photodissociation rate leads to a lower abundance of C and O close to the star, which influences our results. While clumping and porosity still affects the chemistry throughout the outflow, the formation of C-bearing species in O-rich outflows and vice versa is not as large, as their formation depends on the abundance of the deficient element. The chemistry of N- and S-bearing species is largely unaffected.

Figures 4 and 5 show the abundance profiles for the one- and two-component O-rich outflows. The corresponding column densities are listed in Tables 4 and 5, where changes larger than one order of magnitude are marked in boldface. While the abundance of NH3 is largely unaffected, the peak fractional abundances of HCN and CS decrease from 10−7 to 10−10 relative to H2, which does not correspond to observations of HCN and CS in O-rich outflows. The abundance of HCN and CS throughout the outflow are, however, still affected by clumping.

Figures 6 and 7 show the abundance profiles for the one- and two-component C-rich outflows. The corresponding column densities are listed in Tables 6 and 7. The NH3 abundance profile is again largely unaffected. The peak fractional abundance of H2 O decreases from 10−5 to 10−8 relative to H2, that of H2 S remains at ~ 10−8 relative to H2. The maximum abundance of 10−8 relative to H2 for H2 O corresponds to the lower end of the range of the H2O abundance in C-rich outflows (Lombaert et al. 2016). Because of the lower C+ abundance, the abundance profiles of H2O and H2S do not show the secondary peak towards the end of the intermediate region.

The corrected abundance profiles of the additional molecules (Appendix E) for the one- and two-component O-rich outflows are shown in Figs. E.1 and E.2 for the O-rich outflows. The corresponding column densities are listed in Tables E.1 and E.2. The CH4 abundance in the inner region increases up to an order of magnitude, in contrast to the previous increase of four orders of magnitude, up to 10−6 relative to H2. The overall H2CO abundance has decreased, now reaching up to 10−11 relative to H2 with an increase of about an order of magnitude caused by clumping at the end of the intermediate wind. The increase in inner wind abundance of up to four orders of magnitude is not present. Similarly, the C2H2 and CN overall abundance has decreased by up to two orders of magnitude. The abundance of C2H2 does not increase relative to the smooth outflow in the inner wind, and therefore does not reach up to 10−8 relative to H2 in this region, while the increase in CN abundance has decreased from 10−7 to 10−11 relative to H2. The behaviour of the parent species SO is largely unaffected.

Figures E.3 and E.4 show the corrected abundance profiles of the additional molecules for the one- and two-component C-rich outflows. The corresponding column densities are listed in Tables E.3 and E.4. The overall OH abundance decreases by up to two orders of magnitude. Clumping does not lead to a peak abundance in the inner wind of 10−7 relative to H2, but still leads to an increase of up to an order of magnitude. The overall H2CO abundance has decreased by up to two order of magnitude. Clumping leads to an increase in the inner wind abundance, although also two orders magnitude lower. The abundances of HC3N, CH3CN, and C4H2 are largely unaffected.

The corrected abundance profiles of Appendix F, on the predictability of the models, are shown in Figs. F.1 and F.2 for the O-rich outflows. The corresponding column densities are listed in Tables F.1 and F.2. Although the N2O peak abundance has decreased by an order of magnitude, clumping still causes an increase of up to five orders of magnitude. The peak C2N abundance has decreased by more than two orders of magnitude. While clumping causes an increase of up to an order of magnitude in the outer wind, the peak inner wind abundance drops from 10−9 to 10−16 relative to H2. The abundance profiles of C3H and C3H2 show a similar behaviour. The OCS abundance profile does not show a peak towards the end of the intermediate outflow. Clumping can cause an increase of up to an order of magnitude to ~ 10−10 relative to H2 in the intermediate outflow, in contrast to abundances up to 10−7 relative to H2 in the inner wind.

Figures F.3 and F.4 show the corrected abundance profiles of Appendix F for the one- and two-component C-rich outflows. The corresponding column densities are listed in Tables F.3 and F.4. Clumping can cause an increase of up to four orders of magnitude in the inner wind CO2, although the peak abundance drops from 10−7 to 10−9 relative to H2. The SO2 abundance is drastically affected: the peak abundance of the smooth outflow goes down by four orders of magnitude. Clumping can cause an increase of up to three orders of magnitude, although only up to 10−13 relative to H2 in contrast with the previous10−9 relative to H2. While the overall HC9N abundance has decreased by more than an order of magnitude, clumping can still cause an increase in peak abundance of up to three orders of magnitude. The abundance profiles of NO and OCS show similar behaviour, although clumping now increases the peak abundance only up to one to two orders of magnitude, respectively, in contrast with the previous increase of two to four orders of magnitude.

When comparing our results to those of Agúndez et al. (2010), the models still differ in shape, but our models now produce lower abundances of C-bearing species in O-rich outflows and vice versa than Agúndez et al. (2010). We note that our model differs from that of Agúndez et al. (2010) not only in implementation of the density distribution and alteration of the UV radiation field, but also in the chemical reaction network used. Our models still produce NH3 with a larger abundance than TE, unlike non-equilibrium chemistry models.

thumbnail Fig. 4

Abundance of NH3 (upper panels), HCN (middle panels), and CS (lower panels) relative to H2 throughout a one-component O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l* = 5 × 1012 cm, porosity length h* = 1 × 1014, 2.5 × 1013, 1.25 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l* = 1013 cm, h* = 2 × 1014, 5 × 1013,  2.5 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l* = 5 × 1013 cm, h* = 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1014, 1.25 × 1014 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm (green, solid) and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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thumbnail Fig. 5

Abundance of NH3 (upper panels), HCN (middle panels), and CS (lower panels) relative to H2 throughout a two-component O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2,  l*5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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Table 4

Column density [cm−2] of NH3, HCN, and CS in a smooth O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific one-component outflows.

Table 5

Column density [cm−2] of NH3, HCN, and CS in a smooth O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific two-component outflows.

thumbnail Fig. 6

Abundance of NH3 (upper panels), H2O (middle panels), and H2S (lower panels) relative to H2 throughout a one-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l* = 5 × 1012 cm, porosity length h* = 1 × 1014, 2.5 × 1013, 1.25 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l* = 1013 cm, h* = 2 × 1014, 5 × 1013, 2.5 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l* = 5 × 1013 cm, h* = 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1014, 1.25 × 1014 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm (green, solid) and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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thumbnail Fig. 7

Abundance of NH3 (upper panels), H2O (middle panels), and H2S (lower panels) relative to H2 throughout a two-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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Table 6

Column density [cm−2] of NH3, H2O, and H2S in a smooth C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific one-component outflows.

Table 7

Column density [cm−2] of NH3, H2O, and H2S in a smooth C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific two-component outflows.

thumbnail Fig. E.1

Abundance of CH4, H2CO, C2H2, SO and CN relative to H2 throughout one-component O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l* = 5 × 1012 cm, porosity length h* = 1 × 1014, 2.5 × 1013, 1.25 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l* = 1013 cm, h* = 2 × 1014, 5 × 1013, 2.5 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l* = 5 × 1013 cm, h* = 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1014, 1.25 × 1014 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm (green, solid) and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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thumbnail Fig. E.2

Abundance of CH4, H2CO, C2H2, SO, and CN relative to H2 throughout a two-component O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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Table E.1

Column density [cm−2] of CH4, H2CO, C2H2, SO, and CN in a smooth O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific one-component outflows.

Table E.2

Column density [cm−2] of CH4, H2CO, C2H2, SO, and CN in a smooth O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific two-component outflows.

thumbnail Fig. E.3

Abundance of OH, H2CO, HC3N, CH3CN, and C4H2 relative to H2 throughout a one-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l* = 5 × 1012 cm, porosity length h* = 1 × 1014, 2.5 × 1013, 1.25 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l* = 1013 cm, h* = 2 × 1014, 5 × 1013, 2.5 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l* = 5 × 1013 cm, h* = 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1014, 1.25 × 1014 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm (green, solid) and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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thumbnail Fig. E.4

Abundance of OH, H2CO, HC3N, CH3CN, and C4H2 relative to H2 throughout a two-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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Table E.3

Column density [cm−2] of OH, H2CO, HC3N, CH3CN, and C4H2 in a smooth C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific one-component outflows.

Table E.4

Column density [cm−2] of OH, H2CO, HC3N, CH3CN, and C4H2 in a smooth C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific two-component outflows.

thumbnail Fig. F.1

Abundance of N2O, C2N, C3H, C3H2 and OCS relative to H2 throughout a one-component O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l* = 5 × 1012 cm, porosity length h* = 1 × 1014, 2.5 × 1013, 1.25 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l* = 1013 cm, h* = 2 × 1014, 5 × 1013, 2.5 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l* = 5 × 1013 cm, h* = 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1014, 1.25 × 1014 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm (green, solid) and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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thumbnail Fig. F.2

Abundance of N2O, C2N, C3H, C3H2 and OCS relative to H2 throughout a two-component O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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Table F.1

Column density [cm−2] of N2O, C2N, C3H, C3H2 and OCS in a smooth O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific one-component outflows.

Table F.2

Column density [cm−2] of N2O, C2N, C3H, C3H2 and OCS in a smooth O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific two-component outflows.

thumbnail Fig. F.3

Abundance of CO2, SO2, HC9N, NO, and OCS relative to H2 throughout a one-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l* = 5 × 1012 cm, porosity length h* = 1 × 1014, 2.5 × 1013, 1.25 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l* = 1013 cm, h* = 2 × 1014, 5 × 1013, 2.5 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l* = 5 × 1013 cm, h* = 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1014, 1.25 × 1014 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm (green, solid) and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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thumbnail Fig. F.4

Abundance of CO2, SO2, HC9N, NO, and OCS relative to H2 throughout a two-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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Table F.3

Column density [cm−2] of CO2, SO2, HC9N, NO, and OCS in a smooth C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific one-component outflows.

Table F.4

Column density [cm−2] of CO2, SO2, HC9N, NO, and OCS in a smooth C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific two-component outflows.

References


© ESO 2020

All Tables

Table 4

Column density [cm−2] of NH3, HCN, and CS in a smooth O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific one-component outflows.

Table 5

Column density [cm−2] of NH3, HCN, and CS in a smooth O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific two-component outflows.

Table 6

Column density [cm−2] of NH3, H2O, and H2S in a smooth C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific one-component outflows.

Table 7

Column density [cm−2] of NH3, H2O, and H2S in a smooth C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific two-component outflows.

Table E.1

Column density [cm−2] of CH4, H2CO, C2H2, SO, and CN in a smooth O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific one-component outflows.

Table E.2

Column density [cm−2] of CH4, H2CO, C2H2, SO, and CN in a smooth O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific two-component outflows.

Table E.3

Column density [cm−2] of OH, H2CO, HC3N, CH3CN, and C4H2 in a smooth C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific one-component outflows.

Table E.4

Column density [cm−2] of OH, H2CO, HC3N, CH3CN, and C4H2 in a smooth C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific two-component outflows.

Table F.1

Column density [cm−2] of N2O, C2N, C3H, C3H2 and OCS in a smooth O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific one-component outflows.

Table F.2

Column density [cm−2] of N2O, C2N, C3H, C3H2 and OCS in a smooth O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific two-component outflows.

Table F.3

Column density [cm−2] of CO2, SO2, HC9N, NO, and OCS in a smooth C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific one-component outflows.

Table F.4

Column density [cm−2] of CO2, SO2, HC9N, NO, and OCS in a smooth C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates, together with column density ratios relative to the smooth outflow for specific two-component outflows.

All Figures

thumbnail Fig. 4

Abundance of NH3 (upper panels), HCN (middle panels), and CS (lower panels) relative to H2 throughout a one-component O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l* = 5 × 1012 cm, porosity length h* = 1 × 1014, 2.5 × 1013, 1.25 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l* = 1013 cm, h* = 2 × 1014, 5 × 1013,  2.5 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l* = 5 × 1013 cm, h* = 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1014, 1.25 × 1014 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm (green, solid) and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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In the text
thumbnail Fig. 5

Abundance of NH3 (upper panels), HCN (middle panels), and CS (lower panels) relative to H2 throughout a two-component O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2,  l*5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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In the text
thumbnail Fig. 6

Abundance of NH3 (upper panels), H2O (middle panels), and H2S (lower panels) relative to H2 throughout a one-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l* = 5 × 1012 cm, porosity length h* = 1 × 1014, 2.5 × 1013, 1.25 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l* = 1013 cm, h* = 2 × 1014, 5 × 1013, 2.5 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l* = 5 × 1013 cm, h* = 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1014, 1.25 × 1014 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm (green, solid) and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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In the text
thumbnail Fig. 7

Abundance of NH3 (upper panels), H2O (middle panels), and H2S (lower panels) relative to H2 throughout a two-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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In the text
thumbnail Fig. E.1

Abundance of CH4, H2CO, C2H2, SO and CN relative to H2 throughout one-component O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l* = 5 × 1012 cm, porosity length h* = 1 × 1014, 2.5 × 1013, 1.25 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l* = 1013 cm, h* = 2 × 1014, 5 × 1013, 2.5 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l* = 5 × 1013 cm, h* = 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1014, 1.25 × 1014 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm (green, solid) and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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In the text
thumbnail Fig. E.2

Abundance of CH4, H2CO, C2H2, SO, and CN relative to H2 throughout a two-component O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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In the text
thumbnail Fig. E.3

Abundance of OH, H2CO, HC3N, CH3CN, and C4H2 relative to H2 throughout a one-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l* = 5 × 1012 cm, porosity length h* = 1 × 1014, 2.5 × 1013, 1.25 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l* = 1013 cm, h* = 2 × 1014, 5 × 1013, 2.5 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l* = 5 × 1013 cm, h* = 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1014, 1.25 × 1014 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm (green, solid) and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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In the text
thumbnail Fig. E.4

Abundance of OH, H2CO, HC3N, CH3CN, and C4H2 relative to H2 throughout a two-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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In the text
thumbnail Fig. F.1

Abundance of N2O, C2N, C3H, C3H2 and OCS relative to H2 throughout a one-component O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l* = 5 × 1012 cm, porosity length h* = 1 × 1014, 2.5 × 1013, 1.25 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l* = 1013 cm, h* = 2 × 1014, 5 × 1013, 2.5 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l* = 5 × 1013 cm, h* = 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1014, 1.25 × 1014 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm (green, solid) and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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In the text
thumbnail Fig. F.2

Abundance of N2O, C2N, C3H, C3H2 and OCS relative to H2 throughout a two-component O-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

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In the text
thumbnail Fig. F.3

Abundance of CO2, SO2, HC9N, NO, and OCS relative to H2 throughout a one-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: characteristic clump scale l* = 5 × 1012 cm, porosity length h* = 1 × 1014, 2.5 × 1013, 1.25 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dashed coloured line: l* = 1013 cm, h* = 2 × 1014, 5 × 1013, 2.5 × 1013 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively. Dotted coloured line: l* = 5 × 1013 cm, h* = 1 × 1015, 2.5 × 1014, 1.25 × 1014 cm for fvol = 0.05, 0.2, 0.4, respectively.We note that models with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm (green, solid) and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm (red, dashed) have the same porosity length h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

Open with DEXTER
In the text
thumbnail Fig. F.4

Abundance of CO2, SO2, HC9N, NO, and OCS relative to H2 throughout a two-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2,  l* = 5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4,  l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.

Open with DEXTER
In the text

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