Abundance of CO2, SO2, HC9N, NO, and OCS relative to H2 throughout a two-component C-rich outflow with different mass-loss rates Ṁ and clump volume filling factors fvol. The characteristic size of the clumps at the stellar radius is l* = 1013 cm. Blue lines: porosity length h* = 2 × 1014 cm. Green lines: h* = 5 × 1013 cm. Red lines: h* = 2.5 × 1013 cm. Solid black line: calculated abundance for a smooth, uniform outflow. Solid coloured line: density contrast between the inter-clump and smooth outflow fic = 0.1. Dashed coloured line: fic = 0.3. Dotted coloured line: fic = 0.5. We note that the models with fvol = 0.4 (red) have the same porosity length as the one-component outflows with fvol = 0.2, l* = 5 × 1012 cm and fvol = 0.4, l* = 1 × 1013 cm. For reference, 1 R* = 5 × 1013 cm.
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