Volume 654, October 2021
|Number of page(s)||18|
|Published online||11 October 2021|
The distribution and origin of C2H in NGC 253 from ALCHEMI
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
3 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova, 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355, Chile
4 Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova, 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355, Chile
5 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
6 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of AS/NTU Astronomy-Mathematics Building, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
7 Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-1855, Japan
8 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475, USA
9 Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 43992 Onsala, Sweden
10 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223–8522, Japan
11 Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015, Japan
12 Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Magrans, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
13 Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
14 Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN-IGN), Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid, Spain
15 Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
16 Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. de Ajalvir Km. 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid, Spain
17 INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, 50125 Florence, Italy
18 Astron. Dept., Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, PO Box 80203, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
19 New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801, USA
20 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, PO Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801, USA
Accepted: 8 July 2021
Context. Observations of chemical species can provide insights into the physical conditions of the emitting gas however it is important to understand how their abundances and excitation vary within different heating environments. C2H is a molecule typically found in PDR regions of our own Galaxy but there is evidence to suggest it also traces other regions undergoing energetic processing in extragalactic environments.
Aims. As part of the ALCHEMI ALMA large program, we map the emission of C2H in the central molecular zone of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 at 1.6″ (28 pc) resolution and characterize it to understand its chemical origins.
Methods. We used spectral modeling of the N = 1−0 through N = 4−3 rotational transitions of C2H to derive the C2H column densities towards the dense clouds in NGC 253. We then use chemical modeling, including photodissociation region (PDR), dense cloud, and shock models to investigate the chemical processes and physical conditions that are producing the molecular emission.
Results. We find high C2H column densities of ∼1015 cm−2 detected towards the dense regions of NGC 253. We further find that these column densities cannot be reproduced if it is assumed that the emission arises from the PDR regions at the edge of the clouds. Instead, we find that the C2H abundance remains high even in the high visual extinction interior of these clouds and that this is most likely caused by a high cosmic-ray ionization rate.
Key words: galaxies: individual: NGC 253 / astrochemistry / submillimeter: galaxies / radiative transfer
© ESO 2021
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