Volume 643, November 2020
|Number of page(s)||25|
|Published online||27 October 2020|
The ALPINE-ALMA [CII] survey
The nature, luminosity function, and star formation history of dusty galaxies up to z ≃ 6
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica: Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy
2 Aix Marseille University, CNRS, LAM, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille, France
3 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università of Bologna, Via Gobetti 93/2, 40129 Bologna, Italy
4 Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
5 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
6 Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica: Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
7 Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
8 Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583, Japan
9 The Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
10 Centro de Astronomía (CITEVA), Universidad de Antofagasta, Avenida Angamos 601, Antofagasta, Chile
11 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso, Chile
12 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
13 Cosmic Dawn Center (DAWN), Copenhagen, Denmark
14 Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Lyngbyvej 2, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
15 Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
16 Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Ave., Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK
17 Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
18 Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA
19 Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
20 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
21 Leiden Observatory, PO Box 9513 2300 RA, The Netherlands
Accepted: 14 September 2020
Aims. We present the detailed characterisation of a sample of 56 sources serendipitously detected in ALMA band 7 as part of the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate CII at Early Times (ALPINE). These sources, detected in COSMOS and ECDFS, have been used to derive the total infrared luminosity function (LF) and to estimate the cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD) up to z ≃ 6.
Methods. We looked for counterparts of the ALMA sources in all the available multi-wavelength (from HST to VLA) and photometric redshift catalogues. We also made use of deeper UltraVISTA and Spitzer source lists and maps to identify optically dark sources with no matches in the public catalogues. We used the sources with estimated redshifts to derive the 250 μm rest-frame and total infrared (8–1000 μm) LFs from z ≃ 0.5 to 6.
Results. Our ALMA blind survey (860 μm flux density range: ∼0.3–12.5 mJy) allows us to further push the study of the nature and evolution of dusty galaxies at high-z, identifying luminous and massive sources to redshifts and faint luminosities never probed before by any far-infrared surveys. The ALPINE data are the first ones to sample the faint end of the infrared LF, showing little evolution from z ≃ 2.5 to z ≃ 6, and a “flat” slope up to the highest redshifts (i.e. 4.5 < z < 6). The SFRD obtained by integrating the luminosity function remains almost constant between z ≃ 2 and z ≃ 6, and significantly higher than the optical or ultra-violet derivations, showing a significant contribution of dusty galaxies and obscured star formation at high-z. About 14% of all the ALPINE serendipitous continuum sources are found to be optically and near-infrared (near-IR) dark (to a depth Ks ∼ 24.9 mag). Six show a counterpart only in the mid-IR and no HST or near-IR identification, while two are detected as [C II] emitters at z ≃ 5. The six HST+near-IR dark galaxies with mid-IR counterparts are found to contribute about 17% of the total SFRD at z ≃ 5 and to dominate the high-mass end of the stellar mass function at z > 3.
Key words: galaxies: evolution / galaxies: high-redshift / galaxies: luminosity function / mass function / cosmology: observations / submillimeter: galaxies
© ESO 2020
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