Volume 631, November 2019
|Number of page(s)||19|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||11 October 2019|
Photometric and spectroscopic diversity of Type II supernovae
Department of Physics and Astronomy & Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
2 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS, UMI 3386), Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
Accepted: 7 August 2019
Hydrogen-rich (Type II) supernovae (SNe) exhibit considerable photometric and spectroscopic diversity. Extending previous work that focused exclusively on photometry, we simultaneously model the multi-band light curves and optical spectra of Type II SNe using red supergiant (RSG) progenitors that are characterized by their H-rich envelope masses or the mass and extent of an enshrouding cocoon at the star’s surface. Reducing the H-rich envelope mass yields faster declining light curves, a shorter duration of the photospheric phase, and broader line profiles at early times. However, there is only a modest boost in early-time optical brightness. Increasing the mass of the circumstellar material (CSM) is more effective at boosting the early-time brightness and producing a fast-declining light curve while leaving the duration of the photospheric phase intact. It also makes the optical color bluer, delays the onset of recombination, and can severely reduce the speed of the fastest ejecta material. The early ejecta interaction with CSM is conducive to producing featureless spectra at 10−20 d and a weak or absent Hα absorption during the recombination phase. The slow decliners SNe 1999em, 2012aw, and 2004et can be explained with a 1.2 × 1051 erg explosion in a compact (∼600 R⊙) RSG star from a 15 M⊙ stellar evolution model. A small amount of CSM (<0.2 M⊙) improves the match to the SN photometry before 10 d. With more extended RSG progenitors, models predict lower ejecta kinetic energies, but the SN color stays blue for too long and the spectral line widths are too narrow. The fast decliners SNe 2013ej and 2014G may require 0.5−1.0 M⊙ of CSM, although this depends on the CSM structure. A larger boost to the luminosity (as needed for the fast decliners SNe 1979C or 1998S) requires interaction with a more spatially extended CSM, which might also be detached from the star.
Key words: radiative transfer / radiation: dynamics / supernovae: general
© ESO 2019
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