J-PLUS: A wide-field multi-band study of the M 15 globular cluster
Evidence of multiple stellar populations in the RGB
Departamento de Astronomia, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,
e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, SP, Brazil
3 Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón, Plaza San Juan 1, 44001 Teruel, Spain
4 Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, rua General José Cristino, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
5 Observatório Nacional, RJ, Brazil
6 University of Michigan, 500 S State St, Ann Arbor, USA
7 Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE, Brazil
8 AA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía S/N, 18008 Granada, Spain
Accepted: 4 March 2018
Context. As a consequence of internal and external dynamical processes, Galactic globular clusters (GCs) have properties that vary radially. Wide-field observations covering the entire projected area of GCs out to their tidal radii (rtidal) can therefore give crucial information on these important relics of the Milky Way formation era.
Aims. The Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survey (J-PLUS) provides wide field-of-view (2 deg2) images in 12 narrow, intermediate and broad-band filters optimized for stellar photometry. Here we have applied J-PLUS data for the first time for the study of Galactic GCs using science verification data obtained for the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≈−2.3) GC M 15 located at ~10 kpc from the Sun. Previous studies based on spectroscopy found evidence of multiple stellar populations (MPs) through their different abundances of C, N, O, and Na. Our J-PLUS data provide low-resolution spectral energy distributions covering the near-UV to the near-IR, allowing us to instead search for MPs based on pseudo-spectral fitting diagnostics.
Methods. We have built and discussed the stellar radial density profile (RDP) and surface brightness profiles (SBPs) reaching up to rtidal. Since J-PLUS FoV is larger than M 15’s rtidal, the field contamination can be properly taken into account. We also demonstrated the power of J-PLUS unique filter system by showing colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) using different filter combinations and for different cluster regions.
Results. J-PLUS photometric quality and depth are good enough to reach the upper end of M 15’s main-sequence. CMDs based on the colours (u − z) and (J0378 − J0861) are found to be particularly useful to search for splits in the sequences formed by the upper red giant branch (RGB) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We interpret these split sequences as evidence for the presence of MPs. Furthermore, we show that the (u − z) × (J0378 − g) colour–colour diagram allows us to distinguish clearly between field and M 15 stars, which is important to minimize the sample contamination.
Conclusions. The J-PLUS filter combinations (u − z) and (J0378 − J0861), which are sensitive to metal abundances, are able to distinguish different sequences in the upper RGB and AGB regions of the CMD of M 15, showing the feasibility of identifying MPs without the need of spectroscopy. This demonstrates that the J-PLUS survey will have sufficient spatial coverage and spectral resolution to perform a large statistical study of GCs through multi-band photometry in the coming years.
Key words: globular clusters: general / globular clusters: individual: M 15 / surveys
© ESO 2019