Issue 
A&A
Volume 579, July 2015



Article Number  A80  
Number of page(s)  26  
Section  Interstellar and circumstellar matter  
DOI  https://doi.org/10.1051/00046361/201423989  
Published online  01 July 2015 
Online material
Appendix A
Appendix A.1: Molecular column densities
We calculated the molecular column densities of the upper level of a particular transition following the equation for optically thin emission (A.1)where the integrated intensity given in K km s^{1}, and the Einstein coefficient A_{ul} is in s^{1}, and with (A.2)where ν is the frequency of the observed transition (e.g., Mangum & Shirley 2015). Then the total column density (which we refer to from now on as column density) can be calculated: (A.3)When we were able derive the optical depth τ from hyperfine splitting, we corrected for the column density using (A.4)
To obtain abundances, we derived H_{2} column densities either from dust maps obtained with Mambo with the IRAM 30 m telescope at 1.2 mm (Beuther et al. 2002b) which provides a resolution of 11″, or the galactic plane survey ATLASGAL (Schuller et al. 2009) at 870 μm with a resolution of 19.2″, or the SCUBA Legacy Catalog (Di Francesco et al. 2008) at 850 μm with a resolution of 22.9″ (see Table A.1). The continuum data were smoothed to 29″ resolution to be beammatched with the IRAM 30 m observations at 3 mm and the SMT molecular line data. H_{2} column densities were calculated from the observed peak intensities assuming optically thin emission and LTE following Eq. (A.5) (Schuller et al. 2009). The dust opacities used were κ_{850 μm} = 1.48, κ_{870 μm} = 1.42, κ_{1.2 mm} = 0.97, interpolated values from Ossenkopf & Henning (1994), assuming grains with thin ice mantles, gas densities of n = 10^{5} cm^{3}, and a gastodust mass ratio R = 100. With these assumptions the H_{2} column density is calculated as (A.5)The uncertainties in the derived H_{2} column densities are mainly based on the dust and temperature properties and are about a factor of 3. A more detailed description of the derivation is given in Gerner et al. (2014).
The molecular column densities are then divided by the H_{2} column densities, and the averaged abundances are derived.
Source list showing the position, the distance, and the evolutionary stage of all highmass starforming regions.
Luminosity, H_{2}, DCO^{+}, DCN, DNC, and N_{2}D+ column density and the corresponding error (Δ) for each source.
HCO^{+}, HCN, HNC, and N_{2}H^{+} column density and corresponding error (Δ) for each source.
Parameters of the bestfit IRDC model.
Parameters of the bestfit HMPO model.
Parameters of the bestfit HMC model.
Parameters of the bestfit UCHii model.
Median column densities in a(x) = a × 10^{x} for observations (including detections and upper limits) and bestfit IRDC model.
Median column densities in a(x) = a × 10^{x} for observations (including detections and upper limits) and bestfit HMPO model.
Median column densities in a(x) = a × 10^{x} for observations (including detections and upper limits) and bestfit HMC model.
Median column densities in a(x) = a × 10^{x} for observations (including detections and upper limits) and bestfit UCHii model.
Fig. A.1
Observed and modeled column densities in cm^{2} at the IRDC stage. The observed values are shown in blue, the modeled values in black. The error bars are indicated by the vertical marks. Molecules are labeled in the plots. 

Open with DEXTER 
Fig. A.2
Observed and modeled column densities in cm^{2} at the HMPO stage. The observed values are shown in blue, the modeled values in black. The error bars are indicated by the vertical marks. Molecules are labeled in the plots. 

Open with DEXTER 
Fig. A.3
Observed and modeled column densities in cm^{2} at the HMC stage. The observed values are shown in blue, the modeled values in black. The error bars are indicated by the vertical marks. Molecules are labeled in the plots. 

Open with DEXTER 
Fig. A.4
Observed and modeled column densities in cm^{2} at the UCHii stage. The observed values are shown in blue, the modeled values in black. The error bars are indicated by the vertical marks. Molecules are labeled in the plots. 

Open with DEXTER 
© ESO, 2015
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (fulltext article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 4896 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.