Commander foreground amplitude maps, derived from the Planck 2018 data set in intensity. Top-left panel: combined low-frequency foreground map at 40′ FWHM resolution, evaluated at 30 GHz, and accounts for synchrotron, free-free, and anomalous microwave emission. Top-right panel: derived radio point source map, as observed in the 30 GHz frequency channel. Bottom-left panel: thermal dust emission at 10′ FWHM resolution, evaluated at 857 GHz. Neither the CIB nor high-frequency point sources are fitted explicitly in the Commander 2018 temperature model, and these are therefore in effect included in this thermal dust emission map. Bottom-right panel: CO line-emission map, evaluated for the 100 GHz channel.
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