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Fig. 7.


Particle energy spectra, pitch angle and orbit duration distributions for Case 3 orbits: the colours represent orbits without scattering, with scattering at a rate κ = 10−8, and κ = ηsp/ηa respectively (see legend), based upon initial energies ∈[10, 320] eV, initial pitch angles ∈[10, 170]° and originating from x, y ∈ [−1, 1]m, z ∈ [1, 100] m. Each row uses different MHD resistivity: top row (panels a–c) uses ηa = 10−5, middle row (panels d–f) uses ηa = 10−4, and bottom row (panels g–i) uses ηa = 10−3.

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