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Fig. 3.


Orbit trajectories, final positions, energies and field structure for 100 orbits with identical initial conditions, but with scattering effects, subject to MHD resistivities (a) ηa = 10−5, (b) ηa = 10−4 and (c) ηa = 10−3. Initial conditions are [x, y, z] = [0, 0, 150]  m, pitch angle 90°, kinetic energy 320  eV. Coloured orbs represent final orbit positions, coloured according to final kinetic energy (for key see colour bar), grey lines represent orbit paths, while topological features are also overlaid (as defined in Fig. 1).

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