Minimum sample size needed to distinguish two equal Gaussian populations, as a function of the separation of the population mean in units of the standard deviation of each population. The circles are the results from Monte-Carlo simulations as described in the text, using a K–S type test with significance level α = 0.01 and power 1 − β = 0.99. The curve is the fitted function in Eqs. (2) or (3).
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