Volume 640, August 2020
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Section||Galactic structure, stellar clusters and populations|
|Published online||17 August 2020|
High-precision abundances of elements in solar-type stars
Evidence of two distinct sequences in abundance-age relations⋆
Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
Accepted: 9 June 2020
Aims. Previous high-precision studies of abundances of elements in solar twin stars are extended to a wider metallicity range to see how the trends of element ratios with stellar age depend on [Fe/H].
Methods. HARPS spectra with signal-to-noise ratios S/N ≳ 600 at λ ∼ 6000 Å were analysed with MARCS model atmospheres to obtain 1D LTE abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Sr, and Y for 72 nearby solar-type stars with metallicities in the range of −0.3 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ +0.3 and ASTEC stellar models were used to determine stellar ages from effective temperatures, luminosities obtained via Gaia DR2 parallaxes, and heavy element abundances.
Results. The age-metallicity distribution appears to consist of the following two distinct populations: a sequence of old stars with a steep rise of [Fe/H] to ∼ + 0.3 dex at an age of ∼7 Gyr and a younger sequence with [Fe/H] increasing from about −0.3 dex to ∼ + 0.2 dex over the last 6 Gyr. Furthermore, the trends of several abundance ratios, [O/Fe], [Na/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ni/Fe], as a function of stellar age, split into two corresponding sequences. The [Y/Mg]-age relation, on the other hand, shows no offset between the two age sequences and has no significant dependence on [Fe/H], but the components of a visual binary star, ζ Reticuli, have a large and puzzling deviation.
Conclusions. The split of the age-metallicity distribution into two sequences may be interpreted as evidence of two episodes of accretion of gas onto the Galactic disk with a quenching of star formation in between. Some of the [X/Fe]-age relations support this scenario but other relations are not so easy to explain, which calls for a deeper study of systematic errors in the derived abundances as a function of [Fe/H], in particular 3D non-LTE effects.
Key words: stars: solar-type / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: abundances / Galaxy: disk / Galaxy: evolution
Full Tables 1 and 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/640/A81
© ESO 2020
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