Volume 651, July 2021
|Number of page(s)||27|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||23 July 2021|
Constraining the overcontact phase in massive binary evolution
I. Mixing in V382 Cyg, VFTS 352, and OGLE SMC-SC10 108086
European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago de Chile, Chile
2 Institute of Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
3 Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN 59072-970, Brazil
4 Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Mossoró, RN 59610-210, Brazil
5 Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
6 Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 1, 85740 Garching bei München, Germany
7 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
8 School of Astronomy & Space Science, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, PR China
9 Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
10 Royal Observatory of Belgium, Avenue Circulaire 3, 1180 Brussel, Belgium
11 LMU München, Universitätssternwarte, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 München, Germany
Accepted: 14 April 2021
Context. As potential progenitors of several exotic phenomena including gravitational wave sources, magnetic stars, and Be stars, close massive binary systems probe a crucial area of the parameter space in massive star evolution. Despite the importance of these systems, large uncertainties regarding the nature and efficiency of the internal mixing mechanisms still exist.
Aims. We aim to provide robust observational constraints on the internal mixing processes by spectroscopically analyzing a sample of three massive overcontact binaries at different metallicities.
Methods. Using optical phase-resolved spectroscopic data, we performed an atmosphere analysis using more traditional 1D techniques and the most recent 3D techniques. We compared and contrasted the assumptions and results of each technique and investigated how the assumptions affect the final derived atmospheric parameters.
Results. We find that in all three cases, both components of a system are highly overluminous, indicating either efficient internal mixing of helium or previous nonconservative mass transfer. However, we do not find strong evidence of the helium or CNO surface abundance changes that are usually associated with mixing. Additionally, we find that in unequal-mass systems, the measured effective temperature and luminosity of the less massive component places it very close to the more massive component on the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. These results were obtained independently using both of the techniques mentioned above. This suggests that these measurements are robust.
Conclusions. The observed discrepancies between the temperature and the surface abundance measurements when compared to theoretical expectations indicate that additional physical mechanisms that have not been accounted for so far may be at play.
Key words: stars: massive / binaries: spectroscopic / binaries: close
© ESO 2021
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