Volume 649, May 2021
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||03 May 2021|
ATLASGAL-selected massive clumps in the inner Galaxy
IX. Deuteration of ammonia★
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie,
Auf dem Hügel 69,
2 Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
3 Dublin Institute of Advanced Studies, Fitzwilliam Place 31, Dublin 2, Ireland
4 Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, 02215 Boston MA, USA
5 INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
Accepted: 5 January 2021
Context. Deuteration has been used as a tracer of the evolutionary phases of low- and high-mass star formation. The APEX Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLASGAL) provides an important repository for a detailed statistical study of massive star-forming clumps in the inner Galactic disc at different evolutionary phases.
Aims. We study the amount of deuteration using NH2D in a representative sample of high-mass clumps discovered by the ATLASGAL survey covering various evolutionary phases of massive star formation. The deuterium fraction of NH3 is derived from the NH2D 111−101 ortho transition at ~86 GHz and NH2D 111−101 para line at ~110 GHz. This is refined for the first time by measuring the NH2D excitation temperature directly with the NH2D 212–202 para transition at ~74 GHz. Any variation of NH3 deuteration and ortho-to-para ratio with the evolutionary sequence is analysed.
Methods. Unbiased spectral line surveys at 3 mm were conducted towards ATLASGAL clumps between 85 and 93 GHz with the Mopra telescope and from 84 to 115 GHz using the IRAM 30m telescope. A subsample was followed up in the NH2D transition at 74 GHz with the IRAM 30m telescope. We determined the deuterium fractionation from the column density ratio of NH2D and NH3 and measured the NH2D excitation temperature for the first time from the simultaneous modelling of the 74 and 110 GHz line using MCWeeds. We searched for trends in NH3 deuteration with the evolutionary sequence of massive star formation. We derived the column density ratio from the 86 and 110 GHz transitions as an estimate of the NH2D ortho-to-para ratio.
Results. We find a large range of the NH2D to NH3 column density ratio up to 1.6 ± 0.7 indicating a high degree of NH3 deuteration in a subsample of the clumps. Our analysis yields a clear difference between NH3 and NH2D rotational temperatures for a fraction. We therefore advocate observation of the NH2D transitions at 74 and 110 GHz simultaneously to determine the NH2D temperature directly. We determine a median ortho-to-para column density ratio of 3.7 ± 1.2.
Conclusions. The high detection rate of NH2D confirms a high deuteration previously found in massive star-forming clumps. Using the excitation temperature of NH2D instead of NH3 is needed to avoid an overestimation of deuteration. We measure a higher detection rate of NH2D in sources at early evolutionary stages. The deuterium fractionation shows no correlation with evolutionary tracers such as the NH3 (1,1) line width, or rotational temperature.
Key words: surveys / submillimeter: ISM / radio lines: ISM / ISM: molecules / stars: massive / stars: formation
Full Tables 2–6, and 9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/649/A21
© M. Wienen et al. 2021
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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