Volume 648, April 2021
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||12 April 2021|
Characterizing the dust content of disk substructures in TW Hydrae★
Joint ALMA Observatory,
Avenida Alonso de Córdova 3107,
2 European Southern Observatory, Avenida Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
3 Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58089 Morelia Michoacán, México
4 Institute for Astrophysical Research, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
5 NHFP Sagan Fellow, Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 323 West Hall, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
6 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Accepted: 8 February 2021
Context. A key piece of information to understand the origin and role of protoplanetary disk substructures is their dust content. In particular, disk substructures associated with gas pressure bumps can work as dust traps, accumulating grains and reaching the necessary conditions to trigger the streaming instability.
Aims. In order to shed some light on the origin and role that disk substructures play in planet formation, we aim to characterize the dust content of substructures in the disk of TW Hya.
Methods. We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of TW Hya at 3.1 mm with ~50 milliarcsecond resolution. These new data were combined with archival high angular resolution ALMA observations at 0.87, 1.3, and 2.1 mm. We analyze these multiwavelength data to infer a disk radial profile of the dust surface density, maximum particle size, and slope of the particle size distribution.
Results. Most previously known annular substructures in the disk of TW Hya are resolved at the four wavelengths. Inside the inner 3 au cavity, the 2.1 and 3.1 mm images show a compact source of free–free emission, likely associated with an ionized jet. Our multiwavelength analysis of the dust emission shows that the maximum particle size in the disk of TW Hya is >1 mm. The inner 20 au are completely optically thick at all four bands, which results in the data tracing different disk heights at different wavelengths. Coupled with the effects of dust settling, this prevents the derivation of accurate density and grain size estimates in these regions. At r > 20 au, we find evidence of the accumulation of large dust particles at the position of the bright rings, indicating that these are working as dust traps. The total dust mass in the disk is between 250 and 330 M⊕, which represents a gas-to-dust mass ratio between 50 and 70. Our mass measurement is a factor of 4.5–5.9 higher than the mass that one would estimate using the typical assumptions of large demographic surveys.
Conclusions. Our results indicate that the ring substructures in TW Hya are ideal locations to trigger the streaming instability and form new generations of planetesimals.
Key words: accretion, accretion disks / protoplanetary disks / planets and satellites: formation / stars: pre-main sequence / radio continuum: general / techniques: interferometric
ALMA continuum images at 0.87, 1.3, 2.1, and 3.1 mm are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/648/A33
© ESO 2021
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