Volume 647, March 2021
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Section||The Sun and the Heliosphere|
|Published online||02 March 2021|
The effect of a dynamo-generated field on the Parker wind⋆
Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
2 Department of Nuclear and Subnuclear Physics, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, Srobarova 2, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia
3 Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
4 JILA and Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA
5 McWilliams Center for Cosmology & Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Accepted: 27 November 2020
Context. Stellar winds are an integral part of the underlying dynamo, the motor of stellar activity. The wind controls the star’s angular momentum loss, which depends on the magnetic field geometry which, in turn, varies significantly in time and latitude.
Aims. Here we study basic properties of a self-consistent model that includes simple representations of both the global stellar dynamo in a spherical shell and the exterior in which the wind accelerates and becomes supersonic.
Methods. We numerically solved an axisymmetric mean-field model for the induction, momentum, and continuity equations using an isothermal equation of state. The model allows for the simultaneous generation of a mean magnetic field and the development of a Parker wind. The resulting flow is transonic at the critical point, which we arranged to be between the inner and outer radii of the model. The boundary conditions are assumed to be such that the magnetic field is antisymmetric about the equator, that is to say dipolar.
Results. At the solar rotation rate, the dynamo is oscillatory and of α2 type. In most of the domain, the magnetic field corresponds to that of a split monopole. The magnetic energy flux is largest between the stellar surface and the critical point. The angular momentum flux is highly variable in time and can reach negative values, especially at midlatitudes. At a rapid rotation of up to 50 times the solar value, most of the magnetic field is lost along the axis within the inner tangential cylinder of the model.
Conclusions. The model reveals unexpected features that are not generally anticipated from models that are designed to reproduce the solar wind: highly variable angular momentum fluxes even from just an α2 dynamo in the star. A major caveat of our isothermal models with a magnetic field produced by a dynamo is the difficulty to reach small enough plasma betas without the dynamo itself becoming unrealistically strong inside the star.
Key words: magnetic fields / Sun: magnetic fields / solar wind
The source code used for the simulations of this study, the PENCIL CODE (Pencil Code Collaboration 2020), is freely available on https://github.com/pencil-code/. The DOI of the code is https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2315093 (Pencil Code Collaboration 2018). The simulation setups and corresponding data are freely available on https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4284439 (Jakab & Brandenburg 2020).
© ESO 2021
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