Volume 646, February 2021
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||05 February 2021|
Investigating three Sirius-like systems with SPHERE⋆
INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
2 Departamento de Astronomia do IAG/USP, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Mãtao, 1226, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
3 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
4 Escuela de Ingeniería Industrial, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
5 Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388 Marseille, France
6 Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
7 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
8 CRAL, UMR 5574, CNRS, Université Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Charles André, 69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex, France
9 European Space Agency (ESA), ESA Office, Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
10 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
11 European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
12 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
13 NOVA Optical Infrared Instrumentation Group, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
14 ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
15 Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ Edinburgh, UK
16 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
17 Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-Chilena de Astronomía, CNRS/INSU UMI 3386 and Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36, Santiago, Chile
18 Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
19 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy
20 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
21 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001 Vitacura, Santiago 19, Chile
22 Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
23 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milano, Italy
24 STAR Institute, Université de Liège, Allée du Six Août 19c, 4000 Liège, Belgium
25 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
26 Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
27 INCT, Universidad De Atacama, Calle Copayapu 485, Copiapó, Atacama, Chile
28 Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, PSL University, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
29 Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
30 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile
31 Núcleo Milenio Formación Planetaria – NPF, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile
Accepted: 2 December 2020
Context. Sirius-like systems are relatively wide binaries with a separation from a few to hundreds of au; they are composed of a white dwarf (WD) and a companion of a spectral type earlier than M0. Here we consider main sequence (MS) companions, where the WD progenitor evolves in isolation, but its wind during the former asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase pollutes the companion surface and transfers some angular momentum. They are rich laboratories to constrain stellar models and binary evolution.
Aims. Within the SpHere INfrared survey for Exoplanet survey that uses the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) instrument at the Very Large Telescope, our goal is to acquire high contrast multi-epoch observations of three Sirius-like systems, HD 2133, HD 114174, and CD-56 7708 and to combine this data with archive high resolution spectra of the primaries, TESS archive, and literature data.
Methods. These WDs are easy targets for SPHERE and were used as spectrophotometric standards. We performed very accurate abundance analyses for the MS stars using methods considered for solar analogs. Whenever possible, WD parameters and orbits were obtained using Monte Carlo Markov chain methods.
Results. We found brighter J and K magnitudes for HD 114174B than obtained previously and extended the photometry down to 0.95 μm. Our new data indicate a higher temperature and then shorter cooling age (5.57 ± 0.02 Gyr) and larger mass (0.75 ± 0.03 M⊙) for this WD than previously assumed. Together with the oldest age for the MS star connected to the use of the Gaia DR2 distance, this solved the discrepancy previously found with the age of the MS star. The two other WDs are less massive, indicating progenitors of ∼1.3 M⊙ and 1.5 − 1.8 M⊙ for HD 2133B and CD-56 7708B, respectively. In spite of the rather long periods, we were able to derive useful constraints on the orbit for HD 114174 and CD-56 7708. They are both seen close to edge-on, which is in agreement with the inclination of the MS stars that are obtained coupling the rotational periods, stellar radii, and the projected rotational velocity from spectroscopy. The composition of the MS stars agrees fairly well with expectations from pollution by the AGB progenitors of the WDs: HD 2133A has a small enrichment of n-capture elements, which is as expected for pollution by an AGB star with an initial mass < 1.5 M⊙; CD-56 7708A is a previously unrecognized mild Ba-star, which is also expected due to pollution by an AGB star with an initial mass in the range of 1.5 − 3.0 M⊙; and HD 114174 has a very moderate excess of n-capture elements, which is in agreement with the expectation for a massive AGB star to have an initial mass > 3.0 M⊙.
Conclusions. On the other hand, none of these stars show the excesses of C that are expected to go along with those of n-capture elements. This might be related to the fact that these stars are at the edges of the mass range where we expect nucleosynthesis related to thermal pulses. More work, both theoretical and observational, is required to better understand this issue.
Key words: white dwarfs / binaries: general / stars: abundances / stars: individual: CD-56 7708 / stars: individual: HD 2133 / stars: individual: HD 114174
© ESO 2021
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