Volume 626, June 2019
|Number of page(s)||28|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||25 June 2019|
Barium and related stars, and their white-dwarf companions
Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine C.P. 226, Boulevard du Triomphe 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
2 ESO, K. Schwarzschild Straße 2, Garching bei München, Germany
3 Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore 560056, India
4 Institute of Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
Accepted: 9 May 2019
Context. Barium and S stars without technetium are red giants and are suspected of being members of binary systems due to their overabundances in heavy elements. These elements are produced by the s-process of nucleosynthesis, despite the stars not being evolved enough to be able to activate the s-process in their interiors. A companion formerly on the asymptotic giant branch (now a white dwarf) is supposed to be responsible for the barium- and S-star enrichment in s-process elements through mass transfer.
Aims. This paper provides both long-period and revised orbits for barium and S stars, adding to previously published orbits. The sample of barium stars with strong anomalies (i.e., those classified as Ba3, Ba4, or Ba5 in the Warner scale) comprises all known stars of that kind, and in that sense forms a complete sample that allows us to investigate several orbital properties of these post-mass-transfer binaries in an unbiased way.
Methods. Orbital elements are derived from radial velocities collected from a long-term radial-velocity monitoring campaign performed with the HERMES spectrograph mounted on the Mercator 1.2 m telescope. These new measurements were combined with older, CORAVEL measurements. With the aim of investigating possible correlations between orbital properties and abundances, we also collected a set of abundances for barium stars with orbital elements that is as homogeneous as possible. When unavailable in the literature, abundances were derived from high-resolution HERMES spectra.
Results. We find orbital motion for all barium and extrinsic S stars monitored (except for the mild barium star HD 95345). We obtain the longest period known so far for a spectroscopic binary involving an S star, namely 57 Peg with a period of the order of 100−500 yr. We present the mass distribution for the barium stars, which ranges from 1 to 3 M⊙, with a tail extending up to 5 M⊙ in the case of mild barium stars. This high-mass tail is mostly comprised of high-metallicity objects ([Fe/H] ≥ −0.1). The distribution of the companion masses was extracted from the barium-star mass distribution combined with the finding that Q ≡ f(MBa,MWD)/sin3 i = MWD3/(MBa + MWD)2 is peaked at 0.057 ± 0.009 and 0.036 ± 0.027 M⊙ for strong and mild barium stars, respectively (f(MBa, MWD) is the mass function obtained from the orbital elements of spectroscopic binaries with one observable spectrum). Mass functions are compatible with WD companions whose masses range from 0.5 to 1 M⊙. Strong barium stars have a tendency to be found in systems with shorter periods than mild barium stars, although this correlation is rather lose, with metallicity and WD mass also playing a role. Using the initial–final mass relationship established for field WDs, we derived the distribution of the mass ratio q′=MAGB, ini/MBa (where MAGB, ini is the WD progenitor initial mass, i.e., the mass of the former primary component of the system) which is a proxy for the initial mass ratio (the less mass the barium star has accreted, the better the proxy). It appears that the distribution of q′ is highly nonuniform, and significantly different for mild and strong barium stars, the latter being characterized by values mostly in excess of 1.4, whereas mild barium stars occupy the range 1−1.4.
Conclusions. The orbital properties presented in this paper pave the way for a comparison with binary-evolution and nucleosynthesis models, which should account for the various significant correlations found between abundances and dynamical parameters (e.g. between MBa on one hand and MWD, [Fe/H], and [s/Fe] on the other hand, between q′ and [s/Fe], between P and e, and between P and [s/Fe] altogether).
Key words: binaries: spectroscopic / white dwarfs / stars: peculiar / stars: AGB and post-AGB / stars: abundances
Full Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/626/A127
© ESO 2019
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