Volume 626, June 2019
|Number of page(s)||23|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||25 June 2019|
Barium and related stars, and their white-dwarf companions
Institute of Astronomy, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
2 Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
3 Department of physics, Jnana Bharathi Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056, India
4 South African Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 9, Observatory 7935, South Africa
5 Southern African Large Telescope Foundation, PO Box 9, Observatory 7935, South Africa
6 Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, PO Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
7 ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
8 Institut de Physique, Laboratoire d’astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
9 N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland
Accepted: 5 April 2019
Barium (Ba) dwarfs and CH subgiants are the less evolved analogues of Ba and CH giants. They are F- to G-type main-sequence stars polluted with heavy elements by their binary companions when the companion was on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). This companion is now a white dwarf that in most cases cannot be directly detected. We present a large systematic study of 60 objects classified as Ba dwarfs or CH subgiants. Combining radial-velocity measurements from HERMES and SALT high-resolution spectra with radial-velocity data from CORAVEL and CORALIE, we determine the orbital parameters of 27 systems. We also derive their masses by comparing their location in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram with evolutionary models. We confirm that Ba dwarfs and CH subgiants are not at different evolutionary stages, and that they have similar metallicities, despite their different names. Additionally, Ba giants appear significantly more massive than their main-sequence analogues. This is likely due to observational biases against the detection of hotter main-sequence post-mass-transfer objects. Combining our spectroscopic orbits with the HIPPARCOS astrometric data, we derive the orbital inclination and the mass of the WD companion for four systems. Since this cannot be done for all systems in our sample yet (but should be possible with upcoming Gaia data releases), we also analyse the mass-function distribution of our binaries. We can model this distribution with very narrow mass distributions for the two components and random orbital orientations on the sky. Finally, based on BINSTAR evolutionary models, we suggest that the orbital evolution of low-mass Ba systems can be affected by a second phase of interactions along the red giant branch of the Ba star, which impact the eccentricities and periods of the giants.
Key words: stars: late-type / stars: chemically peculiar / binaries: spectroscopic / techniques: imaging spectroscopy
Radial velocity data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/626/A128
Based on observations carried out with the Flemish Mercator Telescope at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM, La Palma, Spain), the Swiss 1m telescope at the Haute-Provence Observatory (OHP, France), and the 1.54 m Danish telescope and the Swiss 1.2 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla, Chile).
Based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph, which is supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium; the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium; the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS), Belgium; the Royal Observatory of Belgium; the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland; and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany.
© ESO 2019
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