Volume 645, January 2021
|Number of page(s)||49|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||12 January 2021|
Physical properties of the ambient medium and of dense cores in the Perseus star-forming region derived from Herschel Gould Belt Survey observations★,★★
INAF – IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100,
00133 Roma, Italy
2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2, Canada
3 NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7, Canada
4 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
5 Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
6 Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
7 Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 31400 Toulouse, France
8 Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée G. Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France
9 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via di Frascati 33, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
10 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma, Italy
11 ESO/European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei Munchen, Germany
12 Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire PR1 2HE, UK
13 Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble, 38000 Grenoble, France
14 Observatorio Astronómico Ramón María Aller, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Galiza, Spain
15 Instituto de Matemáticas and Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Galiza, Spain
16 I. Physik. Institut, University of Cologne, Germany
17 Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton Ontario L8S 4H7, Canada
Accepted: 31 October 2020
The complex of star-forming regions in Perseus is one of the most studied due to its proximity (about 300 pc). In addition, its regions show variation in star-formation activity and age, with formation of low-mass and intermediate-mass stars. In this paper, we present analyses of images taken with the Herschel ESA satellite from 70 μm to 500 μm. From these images, we first constructed column density and dust temperature maps. We then identified compact cores in the maps at each wavelength, and characterised the cores using modified blackbody fits to their spectral energy distributions (SEDs): we identified 684 starless cores, of which 199 are bound and potential prestellar cores, and 132 protostars. We also matched the Herschel-identified young stars with Gaia sources to model distance variations across the Perseus cloud. We measure a linear gradient function with right ascension and declination for the entire cloud. This function is the first quantitative attempt to derive the gradient in distance across Perseus, from east to west, in an analytical form. We derived mass and temperature of cores from the SED fits. The core mass function can be modelled with a log-normal distribution that peaks at 0.82 M⊙ suggesting a star formation efficiency of 0.30 for a peak in the system initial mass function of stars at 0.25 M⊙. The high-mass tail can be modelled with a power law of slope ~−2.32, which is close to the Salpeter’s value. We also identify the filamentary structure of Perseus and discuss the relation between filaments and star formation, confirming that stars form preferentially in filaments. We find that the majority of filaments with ongoing star formation are transcritical against their own internal gravity because their linear masses are below the critical limit of 16 M⊙ pc−1 above which we expect filaments to collapse. We find a possible explanation for this result, showing that a filament with a linear mass as low as 8 M⊙ pc−1 can already be unstable. We confirm a linear relationship between star formation efficiency and the slope of dust probability density function, and we find a similar relationship with the core formation efficiency. We derive a lifetime for the prestellar core phase of 1.69 ± 0.52 Myr for the whole Perseus complex but different regions have a wide range in prestellar core fractions, suggesting that star formation began only recently in some clumps. We also derive a free-fall time for prestellar cores of 0.16 Myr.
Key words: stars: formation / circumstellar matter / stars: protostars / dust, extinction / submillimeter: ISM
Full Tables A.1–A.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/645/A55
© ESO 2021
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