Volume 641, September 2020
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Published online||04 September 2020|
Geodesic motion of S2 and G2 as a test of the fermionic dark matter nature of our Galactic core
ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10, 65122 Pescara, Italy
2 ICRA, Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A. A. 678, Bucaramanga 680002, Colombia
4 Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque, B1900FWA La Plata, Argentina
5 ICRANet-Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
6 Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
7 INAF, Istituto de Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome, Italy
8 INAF, Viale del Parco Mellini 84, 00136 Rome, Italy
Accepted: 22 July 2020
The motion of S-stars around the Galactic center implies that the central gravitational potential is dominated by a compact source, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), which has a mass of about 4 × 106 M⊙ and is traditionally assumed to be a massive black hole (BH). The explanation of the multiyear accurate astrometric data of the S2 star around Sgr A*, including the relativistic redshift that has recently been verified, is particularly important for this hypothesis and for any alternative model. Another relevant object is G2, whose most recent observational data challenge the scenario of a massive BH: its post-pericenter radial velocity is lower than expected from a Keplerian orbit around the putative massive BH. This scenario has traditionally been reconciled by introducing a drag force on G2 by an accretion flow. As an alternative to the central BH scenario, we here demonstrate that the observed motion of both S2 and G2 is explained in terms of the dense core – diluted halo fermionic dark matter (DM) profile, obtained from the fully relativistic Ruffini-Argüelles-Rueda (RAR) model. It has previously been shown that for fermion masses 48−345 keV, the RAR-DM profile accurately fits the rotation curves of the Milky Way halo. We here show that the solely gravitational potential of such a DM profile for a fermion mass of 56 keV explains (1) all the available time-dependent data of the position (orbit) and line-of-sight radial velocity (redshift function z) of S2, (2) the combination of the special and general relativistic redshift measured for S2, (3) the currently available data on the orbit and z of G2, and (4) its post-pericenter passage deceleration without introducing a drag force. For both objects, we find that the RAR model fits the data better than the BH scenario: the mean of reduced chi-squares of the time-dependent orbit and z data are ⟨χ̄2⟩S2,RAR ≈ 3.1 and ⟨χ̄2⟩S2,BH ≈ 3.3 for S2 and ⟨χ̄2⟩G2,RAR ≈ 20 and ⟨χ̄2⟩G2,BH ≈ 41 for G2. The fit of the corresponding z data shows that while for S2 we find comparable fits, that is, χ̄2z,RAR ≈ 1.28 and χ̄2z,BH ≈ 1.04, for G2 the RAR model alone can produce an excellent fit of the data, that is, χ̄2z,RAR ≈ 1.0 and χ̄2z,BH ≈ 26. In addition, the critical mass for gravitational collapse of a degenerate 56 keV-fermion DM core into a BH is ∼ 108 M⊙. This result may provide the initial seed for the formation of the observed central supermassive BH in active galaxies, such as M 87.
Key words: Galaxy: center / Galaxy: kinematics and dynamics / Galaxy: structure / dark matter / elementary particles
© ESO 2020
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