Volume 639, July 2020
|Number of page(s)||8|
|Section||Letters to the Editor|
|Published online||21 July 2020|
Letter to the Editor
Broad-line type Ic SN 2020bvc
Signatures of an off-axis gamma-ray burst afterglow
DARK, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Lyngbyvej 2, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
2 School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC 3010, Australia
3 ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), Sydney, Australia
4 Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
5 Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 México, CDMX
Accepted: 30 June 2020
Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are almost unequivocally associated with very energetic, broad-line supernovae of Type Ic-BL. While the gamma-ray emission is emitted in narrow jets, the SN emits radiation isotropically. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that some SN Ic-BL not associated with GRBs arise from events with inner engines such as off-axis GRBs or choked jets. Here we present observations of the nearby (d = 120 Mpc) SN 2020bvc (ASAS-SN 20bs) that support this scenario. Swift-UVOT observations reveal an early decline (up to two days after explosion), while optical spectra classify it as a SN Ic-BL with very high expansion velocities (≈70 000 km s−1), similar to that found for the jet-cocoon emission in SN 2017iuk associated with GRB 171205A. Moreover, the Swift X-Ray Telescope and CXO X-ray Observatory detected X-ray emission only three days after the SN and decaying onward, which can be ascribed to an afterglow component. Cocoon and X-ray emission are both signatures of jet-powered GRBs. In the case of SN 2020bvc, we find that the jet is off axis (by ≈23 degrees), as also indicated by the lack of early (≈1 day) X-ray emission, which explains why no coincident GRB was detected promptly or in archival data. These observations suggest that SN 2020bvc is the first orphan GRB detected through its associated SN emission.
Key words: gamma-ray burst: general / supernovae: individual: SN2020bvc / stars: jets
© ESO 2020
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