Volume 636, April 2020
|Number of page(s)||26|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||17 April 2020|
VLT/X-shooter spectroscopy of massive young stellar objects in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud⋆,⋆⋆
Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
3 Max-Plank-Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
4 Departamento de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de La Serena, Av. cisternas 1200 Norte, La Serena, Chile
5 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, UK
6 Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
7 Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universitét Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
8 Institute of Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
9 Center for Astrophysics, Harvard-Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
10 Space Telescope Science Institute, 2700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
11 Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
12 CRESST II and Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
13 Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG, UK
Accepted: 6 February 2020
The process of massive star (M ≥ 8 M⊙) formation is still poorly understood. Observations of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) are challenging due to their rarity, short formation timescale, large distances, and high circumstellar extinction. Here, we present the results of a spectroscopic analysis of a population of MYSOs in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We took advantage of the spectral resolution and wavelength coverage of X-shooter (300−2500 nm), which is mounted on the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, to detect characteristic spectral features in a dozen MYSO candidates near 30 Doradus, the largest starburst region in the Local Group hosting the most massive stars known. The X-shooter spectra are strongly contaminated by nebular emission. We used a scaling method to subtract the nebular contamination from our objects. We detect Hα, β, [O I] 630.0 nm, Ca II, infrared triplet [Fe II] 1643.5 nm, fluorescent Fe II 1687.8 nm, H2 2121.8 nm, Brγ, and CO bandhead emission in the spectra of multiple candidates. This leads to the spectroscopic confirmation of ten candidates as bona fide MYSOs. We compared our observations with photometric observations from the literature and find all MYSOs to have a strong near-infrared excess. We computed lower limits to the brightness and luminosity of the MYSO candidates, confirming the near-infrared excess and the massive nature of the objects. No clear correlation is seen between the Brγ luminosity and metallicity. Combining our sample with other LMC samples results in a combined detection rate of disk features, such as fluorescent Fe II and CO bandheads, which is consistent with the Galactic rate (40%). Most of our MYSOs show outflow features.
Key words: stars: formation / stars: pre-main sequence / stars: massive / HII regions / galaxies: clusters: individual: 30 Doradus / Magellanic Clouds
The full X-shooter spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/636/A54
© ESO 2020
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