1 Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2 Institute of Astrophysics, Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
3 European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Operations Department, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada ( Madrid), Spain
4 Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Oskar Klein Center, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
5 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 21218 Baltimore, MD, USA
6 UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK
Received: 8 August 2016
Accepted: 19 April 2017
The formation process of massive stars is still poorly understood. Massive young stellar objects (mYSOs) are deeply embedded in their parental clouds; these objects are rare, and thus typically distant, and their reddened spectra usually preclude the determination of their photospheric parameters. M17 is one of the best-studied H ii regions in the sky, is relatively nearby, and hosts a young stellar population. We have obtained optical to near-infrared spectra of previously identified candidate mYSOs and a few OB stars in this region with X-shooter on the ESO Very Large Telescope. The large wavelength coverage enables a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the photospheres and circumstellar disks of these candidate mYSOs. We confirm the pre-main-sequence (PMS) nature of six of the stars and characterise the O stars. The PMS stars have radii that are consistent with being contracting towards the main sequence and are surrounded by a remnant accretion disk. The observed infrared excess and the double-peaked emission lines provide an opportunity to measure structured velocity profiles in the disks. We compare the observed properties of this unique sample of young massive stars with evolutionary tracks of massive protostars and propose that these mYSOs near the western edge of the H ii region are on their way to become main-sequence stars (~6–20 M⊙) after having undergone high mass accretion rates (Ṁacc ~ 10-4−10-3M⊙yr-1). Their spin distribution upon arrival at the zero age main-sequence is consistent with that observed for young B stars, assuming conservation of angular momentum and homologous contraction.
Key words: stars: pre-main sequence / stars: massive / stars: early-type / HII regions / stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be / accretion, accretion disks
Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 60.A-9404(A), 085.D-0741, 089.C-0874(A), and 091.C-0934(B)).
The full normalised X-shooter spectra are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A78
© ESO, 2017