Volume 634, February 2020
|Number of page(s)||15|
|Published online||31 January 2020|
The Gaia-ESO Survey: a new approach to chemically characterising young open clusters
Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei,
Vicolo Osservatorio 3,
2 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
3 Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA), Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Clayton, VIC 3800, Melbourne, Australia
4 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
5 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
6 Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland
7 Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 3, 10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
8 Departmento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC Campus, Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
9 Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Apdo. 3004, 18080 Granada, Spain
10 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaiso, Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso
11 Núcleo Milenio de Formación Planetaria, NPF, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile
12 Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
13 INAF – Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, Via Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy
14 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
15 Observational Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala, Sweden
16 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
17 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107 Vitacura, Santiago de Chile, Chile
18 Dipartimento di Fisica “Enrico Fermi”, Universita’ di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa, Italy
19 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago, Chile
20 Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
21 McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
22 School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
23 Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), Sydney, Australia
Accepted: 31 December 2019
Context. Open clusters are recognised as excellent tracers of Galactic thin-disc properties. At variance with intermediate-age and old open clusters, for which a significant number of studies is now available, clusters younger than ≲150 Myr have been mostly overlooked in terms of their chemical composition until recently (with few exceptions). On the other hand, previous investigations seem to indicate an anomalous behaviour of young clusters, which includes (but is not limited to) slightly sub-solar iron (Fe) abundances and extreme, unexpectedly high barium (Ba) enhancements.
Aims. In a series of papers, we plan to expand our understanding of this topic and investigate whether these chemical peculiarities are instead related to abundance analysis techniques.
Methods. We present a new determination of the atmospheric parameters for 23 dwarf stars observed by the Gaia-ESO survey in five young open clusters (τ < 150 Myr) and one star-forming region (NGC 2264). We exploit a new method based on titanium (Ti) lines to derive the spectroscopic surface gravity, and most importantly, the microturbulence parameter. A combination of Ti and Fe lines is used to obtain effective temperatures. We also infer the abundances of Fe I, Fe II, Ti I, Ti II, Na I, Mg I, Al I, Si I, Ca I, Cr I, and Ni I.
Results. Our findings are in fair agreement with Gaia-ESO iDR5 results for effective temperatures and surface gravities, but suggest that for very young stars, the microturbulence parameter is over-estimated when Fe lines are employed. This affects the derived chemical composition and causes the metal content of very young clusters to be under-estimated.
Conclusions. Our clusters display a metallicity [Fe/H] between +0.04 ± 0.01 and +0.12 ± 0.02; they are not more metal poor than the Sun. Although based on a relatively small sample size, our explorative study suggests that we may not need to call for ad hoc explanations to reconcile the chemical composition of young open clusters with Galactic chemical evolution models.
Key words: stars: abundances / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: solar-type / open clusters and associations: general
Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/634/A34
Based on observations collected with the FLAMES instrument at VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia- ESO Large Public Spectroscopic Survey (188.B-3002, 193.B-0936).
© ESO 2020
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