Volume 639, July 2020
|Number of page(s)||17|
|Section||Galactic structure, stellar clusters and populations|
|Published online||21 July 2020|
The Gaia-ESO survey: the non-universality of the age–chemical-clocks–metallicity relations in the Galactic disc⋆,⋆⋆
Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Italy
2 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Florence, Italy
3 Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, VIC 3800, Australia
4 Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
5 Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, University of Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
6 McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
7 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
8 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa, Italy
9 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-7 Porto, Portugal
10 Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
11 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago, Chile
12 INAF – Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio di Bologna, via Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy
13 INAF – Padova Observatory, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
14 Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, Apdo. 3004, 18080 Granada, Spain
15 Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43 221 00 Lund, Sweden
16 Rome Astronomical Observatory (OAR), Via di Frascati, 33, 00044 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
17 Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio av. 3, 10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
18 ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), Sydney, Australia
19 School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
20 Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland
21 Observational Astrophysics, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
22 Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR7293), Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS,Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CS 34229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
23 Astrophysics Group, Research Institute for the Environment, Physical Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
24 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaíso, Chile
25 INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa, Italy
Accepted: 19 May 2020
Context. In the era of large spectroscopic surveys, massive databases of high-quality spectra coupled with the products of the Gaia satellite provide tools to outline a new picture of our Galaxy. In this framework, an important piece of information is provided by our ability to infer stellar ages, and consequently to sketch a Galactic timeline.
Aims. We aim to provide empirical relations between stellar ages and abundance ratios for a sample of stars with very similar stellar parameters to those of the Sun, namely the so-called solar-like stars. We investigate the dependence on metallicity, and we apply our relations to independent samples, that is, the Gaia-ESO samples of open clusters and of field stars.
Methods. We analyse high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise-ratio HARPS spectra of a sample of solar-like stars to obtain precise determinations of their atmospheric parameters and abundances for 25 elements and/or ions belonging to the main nucleosynthesis channels through differential spectral analysis, and of their ages through isochrone fitting.
Results. We investigate the relations between stellar ages and several abundance ratios. For the abundance ratios with a steeper dependence on age, we perform multivariate linear regressions, in which we include the dependence on metallicity, [Fe/H]. We apply our best relations to a sample of open clusters located from the inner to the outer regions of the Galactic disc. Using our relations, we are able to recover the literature ages only for clusters located at RGC > 7 kpc. The values that we obtain for the ages of the inner-disc clusters are much greater than the literature ones. In these clusters, the content of neutron capture elements, such as Y and Zr, is indeed lower than expected from chemical evolution models, and consequently their [Y/Mg] and [Y/Al] are lower than in clusters of the same age located in the solar neighbourhood. With our chemical evolution model and a set of empirical yields, we suggest that a strong dependence on the star formation history and metallicity-dependent stellar yields of s-process elements can substantially modify the slope of the [s/α]–[Fe/H]–age relation in different regions of the Galaxy.
Conclusions. Our results point towards a non-universal relation [s/α]–[Fe/H]–age, indicating the existence of relations with different slopes and intercepts at different Galactocentric distances or for different star formation histories. Therefore, relations between ages and abundance ratios obtained from samples of stars located in a limited region of the Galaxy cannot be translated into general relations valid for the whole disc. A better understanding of the s-process at high metallicity is necessary to fully understand the origin of these variations.
Key words: stars: abundances / Galaxy: abundances / Galaxy: disk / Galaxy: evolution / open clusters and associations: general
Full Tables 1–3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/639/A127
© ESO 2020
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