Volume 629, September 2019
|Number of page(s)||26|
|Section||Galactic structure, stellar clusters and populations|
|Published online||05 September 2019|
The Gaia-ESO survey: Calibrating a relationship between age and the [C/N] abundance ratio with open clusters⋆
Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy
2 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
3 INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa, Italy
4 Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa, Italy
5 Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
6 Institut UTINAM, CNRS UMR6213, Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, OSU THETA Franche-Comté-Bourgogne, Observatoire de Besançon, BP 1615, 25010 Besançon Cedex, France
7 Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio av. 3, 10257 Vilnius, Lithuania
8 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
9 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
10 Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, France
11 Space Science Data Center – Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Via del Politecnico, s.n.c., 00133 Roma, Italy
12 Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
13 Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
14 Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA
15 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy
16 Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
17 School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
18 Center of Excellence for Astrophysics in Three Dimensions (ASTRO-3D), Australia
19 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
20 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
21 McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
22 Observational Astrophysics, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
23 Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland
24 Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
25 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
26 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo G. S. Vaiana, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, Italy
27 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago, Chile
28 Instituto de Astrofisica e ciencias do espac – CAUP, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
29 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
30 Observational Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala, Sweden
31 INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, Italy
32 Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile
Accepted: 15 July 2019
Context. In the era of large high-resolution spectroscopic surveys such as Gaia-ESO and APOGEE, high-quality spectra can contribute to our understanding of the Galactic chemical evolution by providing abundances of elements that belong to the different nucleosynthesis channels, and also by providing constraints to one of the most elusive astrophysical quantities: stellar age.
Aims. Some abundance ratios, such as [C/N], have been proven to be excellent indicators of stellar ages. We aim at providing an empirical relationship between stellar ages and [C/N] using open star clusters, observed by the Gaia-ESO and APOGEE surveys, as calibrators.
Methods. We used stellar parameters and abundances from the Gaia-ESO Survey and APOGEE Survey of the Galactic field and open cluster stars. Ages of star clusters were retrieved from the literature sources and validated using a common set of isochrones. We used the same isochrones to determine for each age and metallicity the surface gravity at which the first dredge-up and red giant branch bump occur. We studied the effect of extra-mixing processes in our sample of giant stars, and we derived the mean [C/N] in evolved stars, including only stars without evidence of extra mixing. By combining the Gaia-ESO and APOGEE samples of open clusters, we derived a linear relationship between [C/N] and (logarithmic) cluster ages.
Results. We apply our relationship to selected giant field stars in the Gaia-ESO and APOGEE surveys. We find an age separation between thin- and thick-disc stars and age trends within their populations, with an increasing age towards lower metallicity populations.
Conclusions. With this empirical relationship, we are able to provide an age estimate for giant stars in which C and N abundances are measured. For giant stars, the isochrone fitting method is indeed less sensitive than for dwarf stars at the turn-off. Our method can therefore be considered as an additional tool to give an independent estimate of the age of giant stars. The uncertainties in their ages is similar to those obtained using isochrone fitting for dwarf stars.
Key words: Galaxy: abundances / open clusters and associations: general / Galaxy: disk
© ESO 2019
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