Volume 634, February 2020
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Published online||11 February 2020|
Radiation spectra of warm and optically thick coronae in AGNs
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
2 Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland
3 Laboratoire AIM (CEA/IRFU – CNRS/INSU – Université Paris Diderot), CEA DSM/IRFU/SAp, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
4 Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma, Italy
5 Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw, Poland
6 IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, CNES, Toulouse, France
7 INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologie Spaziali, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 00133 Rome, Italy
8 INAF-Osservatorio di astrofisica e scienza dello spazio di Bologna (OAS), Via Piero Gobetti 93/3, 40129 Bologna, Italy
Accepted: 7 January 2020
A soft X-ray excess above the 2–10 keV power-law extrapolation is generally observed in the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei. The origin of this excess is still not well understood. Presently there are two competitive models: blurred ionized reflection and warm Comptonization. In the case of warm Comptonization, observations suggest a corona temperature in the range 0.1–2 keV and a corona optical depth of about 10–20. Moreover, radiative constraints from spectral fits with Comptonization models suggest that most of the accretion power should be released in the warm corona and the disk below is basically non-dissipative, radiating only the reprocessed emission from the corona. However, the true radiative properties of such a warm and optically thick plasma are not well known. For instance, the importance of the Comptonization process, the potential presence of strong absorption and/or emission features, and the spectral shape of the output spectrum have been studied only very recently. Here, we present simulations of warm and optically thick coronae using the TITAN radiative transfer code coupled with the NOAR Monte-Carlo code, the latter fully accounting for Compton scattering of continuum and lines. Illumination from above by hard X-ray emission and from below by an optically thick accretion disk are taken into account, as well as (uniform) internal heating. Our simulations show that for a large part of the parameter space, the warm corona with sufficient internal mechanical heating is dominated by Compton cooling and neither strong absorption nor emission lines are present in the outgoing spectra. In a smaller part of the parameter space, the calculated emission agrees with the spectral shape of the observed soft X-ray excess. Remarkably, this also corresponds to the conditions of radiative equilibrium of an extended warm corona covering a non-dissipative accretion disk almost entirely. These results confirm that warm Comptonization is a valuable model that can explain the origin of the soft X-ray excess.
Key words: galaxies: active / radiative transfer / methods: numerical / X-rays: galaxies
© P.-O. Petrucci et al. 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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