Volume 634, February 2020
|Number of page(s)||11|
|Published online||07 February 2020|
Observational constraints on the origin of the elements
II. 3D non-LTE formation of Ba II lines in the solar atmosphere
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie,
2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
3 LUPM, UMR 5299, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, 34095 Montpellier, France
4 Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
5 Rosseland Centre for Solar Physics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1029 Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway
6 Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1029 Blindern, 0315 Oslo, Norway
7 Department of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Herzen University, St Petersburg 191186, Russia
Accepted: 1 October 2019
Context. The pursuit of more realistic spectroscopic modelling and consistent abundances has led us to begin a new series of papers designed to improve current solar and stellar abundances of various atomic species. To achieve this, we have begun updating the three-dimensional (3D) non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative transfer code, MULTI3D, and the equivalent one-dimensional (1D) non-LTE radiative transfer code, MULTI 2.3.
Aims. We examine our improvements to these codes by redetermining the solar barium abundance. Barium was chosen for this test as it is an important diagnostic element of the s-process in the context of galactic chemical evolution. New Ba II + H collisional data for excitation and charge exchange reactions computed from first principles had recently become available and were included in the model atom. The atom also includes the effects of isotopic line shifts and hyperfine splitting.
Methods. A grid of 1D LTE barium lines were constructed with MULTI 2.3 and fit to the four Ba II lines available to us in the optical region of the solar spectrum. Abundance corrections were then determined in 1D non-LTE, 3D LTE, and 3D non-LTE. A new 3D non-LTE solar barium abundance was computed from these corrections.
Results. We present for the first time the full 3D non-LTE barium abundance of A(Ba) = 2.27 ± 0.02 ± 0.01, which was derived from four individual fully consistent barium lines. Errors here represent the systematic and random errors, respectively.
Key words: hydrodynamics / radiative transfer / line: formation
© A. J. Gallagher et al. 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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