Volume 631, November 2019
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Published online||16 October 2019|
LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris,
5 Place Jules Janssen,
2 Université Côte d’Azur, OCA, CNRS, Lagrange, Parc Valrose, Bât. Fizeau, 06108 Nice Cedex 02, France
3 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago, Chile
4 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
5 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Physical Sciences Department, 600 S Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114, USA
6 Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile
7 Millenium Institute of Astrophysics, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Chile
8 Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa, Poland
Accepted: 5 August 2019
Context. Accurate radial velocities (vrad) of Cepheids are mandatory within the context of Cepheid distance measurements using the Baade-Wesselink technique. The most common vrad derivation method consists in cross-correlating the observed stellar spectra with a binary template and measuring a velocity on the resulting mean profile. Nevertheless, for Cepheids and other pulsating stars, the spectral lines selected within the template as well as the way of fitting the cross-correlation function (CCF) have a direct and significant impact on the measured vrad.
Aims. Our first aim is to detail the steps to compute consistent CCFs and vrad of Cepheids. Next, this study aims at characterising the impact of Cepheid spectral properties and vrad computation methods on the resulting line profiles and vrad time series.
Methods. We collected more than 3900 high-resolution spectra from seven different spectrographs of 64 Classical Milky Way (MW) Cepheids. These spectra were normalised and standardised using a single custom-made process on pre-defined wavelength ranges. We built six tailored correlation templates selecting unblended spectral lines of different depths based on a synthetic Cepheid spectrum, on three different wavelength ranges from 3900 to 8000 Å. Each observed spectrum was cross-correlated with these templates to build the corresponding CCFs, adopted as the proxy for the spectrum mean line profile. We derived a set of line profile observables as well as three different vrad measurements from each CCF and two custom proxies for the CCF quality and amount of signal.
Results. This study presents a large catalogue of consistent Cepheid CCFs and vrad time series. It confirms that each step of the process has a significant impact on the deduced vrad: the wavelength, the template line depth and width, and the vrad computation method. The way towards more robust Cepheid vrad time series seems to go through steps that minimise the asymmetry of the line profile and its impact on the vrad. Centroid or first-moment vrad, that exhibit slightly smaller amplitudes but significantly smaller scatter than Gaussian or biGaussian vrad, should therefore be favoured. Stronger or deeper spectral lines also tend to be less asymmetric and lead to more robust vrad than weaker lines.
Key words: techniques: spectroscopic / techniques: radial velocities / stars: variables: Cepheids / stars: atmospheres
Catalog of radial velocity (and other observables) time series, the cross-correlation functions and our tailored correlation templates are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/631/A37
Partly based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal and La Silla observatories under program IDs: 072.D-0419, 073.D-0136, 091.D-0469(A), 097.D60150(A) and 190.D-0237 for HARPS data; 098.D-0379(A), 0100.D-0397(A) and 0101.D-0551(A) for UVES data; and 073.D-0072(A), 074.D-0008(B), 075.D-0676(A), 084.B-0029(A) and 087.D-0603(A) for FEROS data. Partly based on observations made with the SOPHIE spectrograph at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS, France), under program IDs PNPS.FRAN (12B), PNPS.GALL (13A, 14A, 15A), PNPS.KERV (13B, 16B, 17B), and PNPS.BORG (18A). Partly based on observations made with the CORALIE spectrograph on the Euler telescope (Swiss Observatory) at La Silla, Chile, under program numbers 1 and 756. Partly based on observations collected at the Telescope Nazionale Galileo in the framework of the OPTICON proposal 2015B/15 for HARPS-North data.
© S. Borgniet et al. 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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