Volume 631, November 2019
|Number of page(s)||7|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||11 October 2019|
Fossil group origins
X. Velocity segregation in fossil systems
IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
2 AIM, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
3 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, calle Vía Láctea s/n, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
4 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avenida Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez s/n, 38206 La Laguna, Spain
5 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy
6 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste, Italy
7 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
8 INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, 35122 Padova, Italy
9 Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA
10 Harvard Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Str., 02138 Cambridge, MA, USA
Accepted: 19 July 2019
Aims. We aim to study how the velocity segregation and the radial profile of the velocity dispersion depend on the prominence of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs).
Methods. We divided a sample of 102 clusters and groups of galaxies into four bins of magnitude gap between the two brightest cluster members. We then computed the velocity segregation in bins of absolute and relative magnitude. Moreover, for each bin of magnitude gap we computed the radial profile of the velocity dispersion.
Results. When using absolute magnitudes, the segregation in velocity is limited to the two brightest bins and no significant difference is found for different magnitude gaps. However, when we use relative magnitudes, a trend appears in the brightest bin: the larger the magnitude gap, the larger the velocity segregation. We also show that this trend is mainly due to the presence, in the brightest bin, of satellite galaxies in systems with small magnitude gaps: in fact, if we study central galaxies and satellites separately, this trend is mitigated and central galaxies are more segregated than satellites for any magnitude gap. A similar result is found in the radial velocity dispersion profiles: a trend is visible in central regions (where the BCGs dominate) but, if we analyse the profile using satellites alone, the trend disappears. In the latter case, the shape of the velocity dispersion profile in the centre of the systems with different magnitude gaps shows three types of behaviour: systems with the smallest magnitude gaps have an almost flat profile from the centre to the external regions; systems with the largest magnitude gaps show a monothonical growth from the low values of the central part to the flat ones in the external regions; and finally, systems with 1.0 < Δm12 ≤ 1.5 show a profile that peaks in the centre and then decreases towards the external regions.
Conclusions. We suggest that two mechanisms could be responsible for the observed differences in the velocity segregation of the BCGs: an earlier formation of systems with a larger magnitude gap or a more centrally concentrated halo. However, the radial profiles of the velocity dispersion confirm that central galaxies are more relaxed, but that the satellite galaxies do not seem to be affected by the magnitude gap.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: groups: general
© S. Zarattini et al. 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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