Volume 627, July 2019
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||01 July 2019|
IRAS 23385+6053: an embedded massive cluster in the making★
INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri,
Largo E. Fermi 5,
2 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
3 Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
4 Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, PO Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México
5 School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
6 UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK
7 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
8 INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza 5, 09047 Selargius (CA), Italy
9 Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 5RF, UK
10 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
11 Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching, Germany
12 Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1, Canada
13 I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Köln, Germany
14 Department of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian University, Butenandtstr. 5-13, 81377 Munich, Germany
15 Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NH, UK
16 Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d’Hères, France
17 Center for Astrophysics, Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
18 Deutsches SOFIA Institut, Pfaffenwaldring 29, Universität Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
19 Universidad Autonoma de Chile, Av. Pedro Valdivia 425, Santiago de Chile, Chile
Accepted: 23 May 2019
Context. This study is part of the CORE project, an IRAM/NOEMA large program consisting of observations of the millimeter continuum and molecular line emission towards 20 selected high-mass star-forming regions. The goal of the program is to search for circumstellar accretion disks, study the fragmentation process of molecular clumps, and investigate the chemical composition of the gas in these regions.
Aims. We focus on IRAS 23385+6053, which is believed to be the least-evolved source of the CORE sample. This object is characterized by a compact molecular clump that is IR-dark shortward of 24 μm and is surrounded by a stellar cluster detected in the near-IR. Our aim is to study the structure and velocity field of the clump.
Methods. Observations were performed at ~1.4 mm and employed three configurations of NOEMA and additional single-dish maps, merged with the interferometric data to recover the extended emission. Our correlator setup covered a number of lines from well-known hot core tracers and a few outflow tracers. The angular (~0′′.45–0′′.9) and spectral (0.5 km s−1) resolutions were sufficient to resolve the clump in IRAS 23385+6053 and investigate the existence of large-scale motions due to rotation, infall, or expansion.
Results. We find that the clump splits into six distinct cores when observed at sub-arcsecond resolution. These are identified through their 1.4 mm continuum and molecular line emission. We produce maps of the velocity, line width, and rotational temperature from the methanol and methyl cyanide lines, which allow us to investigate the cores and reveal a velocity and temperature gradient in the most massive core. We also find evidence of a bipolar outflow, possibly powered by a low-mass star.
Conclusions. We present the tentative detection of a circumstellar self-gravitating disk lying in the most massive core and powering a large-scale outflow previously known in the literature. In our scenario, the star powering the flow is responsible for most of the luminosity of IRAS 23385+6053 (~3000 L⊙). The other cores, albeit with masses below the corresponding virial masses, appear to be accreting material from their molecular surroundings and are possibly collapsing or on the verge of collapse. We conclude that we are observing a sample of star-forming cores that is bound to turn into a cluster of massive stars.
Key words: stars: early-type / stars: formation / stars: massive / ISM: individual objects: IRAS 23385+6053
© ESO 2019
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