Volume 627, July 2019
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||28 June 2019|
Astronomy Department of the University of Geneva,
51 chemin des Maillettes,
2 Institut of Computational Sciences, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
3 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
4 Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal
5 Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
6 Physikalisches Institut, Universitat Bern, Silderstrasse 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
7 NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
8 Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
9 CONICET – Universidad de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), Buenos Aires, Argentina
10 Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
11 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt MD 20771, USA
12 School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
13 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
14 Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
15 SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
16 Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Accepted: 17 April 2019
Context. The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is revolutionising the search for planets orbiting bright and nearby stars. In sectors 3 and 4, TESS observed TOI-402 (TIC-120896927), a bright V = 9.1 K1 dwarf also known as HD 15337, and found two transiting signals with periods of 4.76 and 17.18 days and radii of 1.90 and 2.21 R⊕, respectively. This star was observed prior to the TESS detection as part of the radial-velocity (RV) search for planets using the HARPS spectrometer, and 85 precise RV measurements were obtained before the launch of TESS over a period of 14 yr.
Aims. In this paper, we analyse the HARPS RV measurements in hand to confirm the planetary nature of these two signals.
Methods. HD 15337 happens to present a stellar activity level similar to the Sun, with a magnetic cycle of similar amplitude and RV measurements that are affected by stellar activity. By modelling this stellar activity in the HARPS radial velocities using a linear dependence with the calcium activity index log(RHK′), we are able, with a periodogram approach, to confirm the periods and the planetary nature of TOI-402.01 and TOI-402.02. We then derive robust estimates from the HARPS RVs for the orbital parameters of these two planets by modelling stellar activity with a Gaussian process and using the marginalised posterior probability density functions obtained from our analysis of TESS photometry for the orbital period and time of transit.
Results. By modelling TESS photometry and the stellar host characteristics, we find that TOI-402.01 and TOI-402.02 have periods of 4.75642 ± 0.00021 and 17.1784 ± 0.0016 days and radii of 1.70 ± 0.06 and 2.52 ± 0.11 R⊕ (precision 3.6 and 4.2%), respectively. By analysing the HARPS RV measurements, we find that those planets are both super-Earths with masses of 7.20 ± 0.81 and 8.79 ± 1.68 M⊕ (precision 11.3 and 19.1%), and small eccentricities compatible with zero at 2σ.
Conclusions. Although having rather similar masses, the radii of these two planets are very different, putting them on different sides of the radius gap. By studying the temporal evolution under X-ray and UV (XUV) driven atmospheric escape of the TOI-402 planetary system, we confirm, under the given assumptions, that photo-evaporation is a plausible explanation for this radius difference. Those two planets, being in the same system and therefore being in the same irradiation environment are therefore extremely useful for comparative exoplanetology across the evaporation valley and thus bring constraints on the mechanisms responsible for the radius gap.
Key words: techniques: radial velocities / techniques: spectroscopic / stars: activity / stars: individual: HD 15337 / stars: individual: TOI-402 / stars: individual: TIC-120896927
Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/627/A43
© ESO 2019
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