Volume 615, July 2018
|Number of page(s)||38|
|Published online||17 July 2018|
Spectral models for binary products: Unifying subdwarfs and Wolf-Rayet stars as a sequence of stripped-envelope stars★
Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam,
e-mail: Y.L.L.Gotberg@uva.nl, S.E.deMink@uva.nl
2 School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
3 Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
4 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH, UK
5 Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
Accepted: 8 February 2018
Stars stripped of their hydrogen-rich envelope through interaction with a binary companion are generally not considered when accounting for ionizing radiation from stellar populations, despite the expectation that stripped stars emit hard ionizing radiation, form frequently, and live 10–100 times longer than single massive stars. We compute the first grid of evolutionary and spectral models specially made for stars stripped in binaries for a range of progenitor masses (2–20 M⊙) and metallicities ranging from solar to values representative for pop II stars. For stripped stars with masses in the range 0.3–7 M⊙, we find consistently high effective temperatures (20 000–100 000 K, increasing with mass), small radii (0.2–1 R⊙), and high bolometric luminosities, comparable to that of their progenitor before stripping. The spectra show a continuous sequence that naturally bridges subdwarf-type stars at the low-mass end and Wolf-Rayet-like spectra at the high-mass end. For intermediate masses we find hybrid spectral classes showing a mixture of absorption and emission lines. These appear for stars with mass-loss rates of 10−8−10−6 M⊙ yr−1, which have semi-transparent atmospheres. At low metallicity, substantial hydrogen-rich layers are left at the surface and we predict spectra that resemble O-type stars instead. We obtain spectra undistinguishable from subdwarfs for stripped stars with masses up to 1.7 M⊙, which questions whether the widely adopted canonical value of 0.47 M⊙ is uniformly valid. Only a handful of stripped stars of intermediate mass have currently been identified observationally. Increasing this sample will provide necessary tests for the physics of interaction, internal mixing, and stellar winds. We use our model spectra to investigate the feasibility to detect stripped stars next to an optically bright companion and recommend systematic searches for their UV excess and possible emission lines, most notably HeII λ4686 in the optical and HeII λ1640 in the UV. Our models are publicly available for further investigations or inclusion in spectral synthesis simulations.
Key words: binaries: close / stars: atmospheres / subdwarfs / stars: Wolf-Rayet / galaxies: stellar content / ultraviolet: galaxies
The models are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/615/A78
© ESO 2018
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