This article has an erratum: [https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201731445e]
Volume 614, June 2018
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||15 June 2018|
The cosmological analysis of X-ray cluster surveys
IV. Testing ASpiX with template-based cosmological simulations
IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay,
2 Université Paris Diderot, AIM, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CEA, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
3 Departments of Physics and Astronomy and Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
4 Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
5 CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse cedex 4, France
6 Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse, France
7 Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, 53121 Bonn, Germany
Accepted: 27 January 2018
Context. This paper is the fourth of a series evaluating the ASpiX cosmological method, based on X-ray diagrams, which are constructed from simple cluster observable quantities, namely: count rate (CR), hardness ratio (HR), core radius (rc), and redshift. Aims. Following extensive tests on analytical toy catalogues (Paper III), we present the results of a more realistic study over a 711 deg2 template-based maps derived from a cosmological simulation.
Methods. Dark matter haloes from the Aardvark simulation have been ascribed luminosities, temperatures, and core radii, using local scaling relations and assuming self-similar evolution. The predicted X-ray sky-maps were converted into XMM event lists, using a detailed instrumental simulator. The XXL pipeline runs on the resulting sky images, produces an observed cluster catalogue over which the tests have been performed. This allowed us to investigate the relative power of various combinations of the CR, HR, rc, and redshift information. Two fitting methods were used: a traditional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach and a simple minimisation procedure (Amoeba) whose mean uncertainties are a posteriori evaluated by means of synthetic catalogues. The results were analysed and compared to the predictions from the Fisher analysis (FA).
Results. For this particular catalogue realisation, assuming that the scaling relations are perfectly known, the CR-HR combination gives σ8 and Ωm at the 10% level, while CR-HR-rc-z improves this to ≤3%. Adding a second HR improves the results from the CR-HR1-rc combination, but to a lesser extent than when adding the redshift information. When all coefficients of the mass-temperature relation (M-T, including scatter) are also fitted, the cosmological parameters are constrained to within 5–10% and larger for the M-T coefficients (up to a factor of two for the scatter). The errors returned by the MCMC, those by Amoeba and the FA predictions are in most cases in excellent agreement and always within a factor of two. We also study the impact of the scatter of the mass-size relation (M-Rc) on the number of detected clusters: for the cluster typical sizes usually assumed, the larger the scatter, the lower the number of detected objects.
Conclusions. The present study confirms and extends the trends outlined in our previous analyses, namely the power of X-ray observable diagrams to successfully and easily fit at the same time, the cosmological parameters, cluster physics, and the survey selection, by involving all detected clusters. The accuracy levels quoted should not be considered as definitive. A number of simplifying hypotheses were made for the testing purpose, but this should affect any method in the same way. The next publication will consider in greater detail the impact of cluster shapes (selection and measurements) and of cluster physics on the final error budget by means of hydrodynamical simulations.
Key words: X-rays: galaxies: clusters / cosmological parameters / methods: statistical
© ESO 2018
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