The central dynamics of M3, M13, and M92: stringent limits on the masses of intermediate-mass black holes⋆,⋆⋆,⋆⋆⋆
Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP),
An der Sternwarte 16,
2 Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
Accepted: 7 April 2014
We used the PMAS integral field spectrograph to obtain large sets of radial velocities in the central regions of three northern Galactic globular clusters: M3, M13, and M92. By applying the novel technique of crowded field 3D spectroscopy, we measured radial velocities for about 80 stars within the central ~10″ of each cluster. These are by far the largest spectroscopic datasets obtained in the innermost parts of these clusters up to now. To obtain kinematical data across the whole extent of the clusters, we complement our data with measurements available in the literature. We combine our velocity measurements with surface brightness profiles to analyse the internal dynamics of each cluster using spherical Jeans models, and investigate whether our data provide evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole in any of the clusters. The surface brightness profiles reveal that all three clusters are consistent with a core profile, although shallow cusps cannot be excluded. We find that spherical Jeans models with a constant mass-to-light ratio provide a good overall representation of the kinematical data. A massive black hole is required in none of the three clusters to explain the observed kinematics. Our 1σ (3σ) upper limits are 5300 M⊙ (12 000 M⊙) for M3, 8600 M⊙ (13 000 M⊙) for M13, and 980 M⊙ (2700 M⊙) for M92. A puzzling circumstance is the existence of several potential high velocity stars in M3 and M13, as their presence can account for the majority of the discrepancies that we find in our mass limits compared to M92.
Key words: stars: kinematics and dynamics / globular clusters: individual: M3 / globular clusters: individual: M13 / globular clusters: individual: M92 / black hole physics
Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).
Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Tables D.1 to D.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A58
© ESO, 2014