Volume 539, March 2012
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Published online||24 February 2012|
Searching for soft relativistic jets in core-collapse supernovae with the IceCube optical follow-up program
1 III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen, Germany
2 Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
3 Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3211 Providence Dr., Anchorage, AK 99508, USA
4 University of Michigan, Randall Laboratory of Physics, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-1040, USA
5 CTSPS, Clark-Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314, USA
6 School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
7 Dept. of Physics, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA 70813, USA
8 Dept. of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
9 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
10 Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin, Germany
11 Fakultät für Physik & Astronomie,Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany
12 Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn, Germany
13 Dept. of Physics, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Bridgetown BB11000, Barbados
14 Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
15 Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B 1050 Brussels, Belgium
16 Dept. of Physics, Chiba University, 263-8522 Chiba, Japan
17 Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand
18 Dept. of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
19 Dept. of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
20 Dept. of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
21 Dept. of Physics, TU Dortmund University, 44221 Dortmund, Germany
22 Dept. of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7, Canada
23 Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, 9000 Gent, Belgium
24 Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, 69177 Heidelberg, Germany
25 Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
26 Laboratory for High Energy Physics, École Polytechnique Fédérale, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
27 Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
28 Dept. of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
29 Dept. of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
30 Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55099 Mainz, Germany
31 Université de Mons, 7000 Mons, Belgium
32 Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Nainital, India
33 Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
34 Dept. of Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP, UK
35 Dept. of Physics, University of Wisconsin, River Falls, WI 54022, USA
36 Oskar Klein Centre and Dept. of Physics, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
37 Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
38 Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
39 Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala, Sweden
40 Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611, Australia
41 Dept. of Physics, University of Wuppertal, 42119 Wuppertal, Germany
42 DESY, 15735 Zeuthen, Germany
43 Now at Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
44 Now at Physics Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701, USA
45 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
46 Also Sezione INFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, 70126, Bari, Italy
47 Now at T.U. Munich, 85748 Garching & Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
48 Now at T.U. Munich, 85748 Garching, Germany
49 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Received: 12 September 2011
Accepted: 21 December 2011
Context. Transient neutrino sources such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and supernovae (SNe) are hypothesized to emit bursts of high-energy neutrinos on a time-scale of ≲100 s. While GRB neutrinos would be produced in high relativistic jets, core-collapse SNe might host soft-relativistic jets, which become stalled in the outer layers of the progenitor star leading to an efficient production of high-energy neutrinos.
Aims. To increase the sensitivity to these neutrinos and identify their sources, a low-threshold optical follow-up program for neutrino multiplets detected with the IceCube observatory has been implemented.
Methods. If a neutrino multiplet, i.e. two or more neutrinos from the same direction within 100 s, is found by IceCube a trigger is sent to the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment, ROTSE. The 4 ROTSE telescopes immediately start an observation program of the corresponding region of the sky in order to detect an optical counterpart to the neutrino events.
Results. No statistically significant excess in the rate of neutrino multiplets has been observed and furthermore no coincidence with an optical counterpart was found.
Conclusions. The search allows, for the first time, to set stringent limits on current models predicting a high-energy neutrino flux from soft relativistic hadronic jets in core-collapse SNe. We conclude that a sub-population of SNe with typical Lorentz boost factor and jet energy of 10 and 3 × 1051 erg, respectively, does not exceed 4.2% at 90% confidence.
Key words: neutrinos / supernovae: general / gamma-ray burst: general
© ESO, 2012
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