A wide-field H I mosaic of Messier 31
II. The disk warp, rotation, and the dark matter halo
INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5,
50125 Firenze, Italy e-mail: [edvige;silvio]@arcetri.astro.it
2 Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, PO Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
3 CSIRO-ATNF, PO Box 76, Epping, NSW 2121, Australia e-mail: Robert.Braun@csiro.au
4 Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA e-mail: email@example.com
Accepted: 19 December 2009
Aims. We test cosmological models of structure formation using the rotation curve of the nearest spiral galaxy, M 31, determined using a recent deep, full-disk 21-cm imaging survey smoothed to 466 pc resolution.
Methods. We fit a tilted ring model to the HI data from 8 to 37 kpc and establish conclusively the presence of a dark halo and its density distribution via dynamical analysis of the rotation curve.
Results. The disk of M 31 warps from 25 kpc outwards and becomes more inclined with respect to our line of sight. Newtonian dynamics without a dark matter halo provide a very poor fit to the rotation curve. In the framework of modified Newtonian dynamic (MOND) however the 21-cm rotation curve is well fitted by the gravitational potential traced by the baryonic matter density alone. The inclusion of a dark matter halo with a density profile as predicted by hierarchical clustering and structure formation in a ΛCDM cosmology makes the mass model in newtonian dynamic compatible with the rotation curve data. The dark halo concentration parameter for the best fit is C = 12 and its total mass is 1.2 1012 . If a dark halo model with a constant-density core is considered, the core radius has to be larger than 20 kpc in order for the model to provide a good fit to the data. We extrapolate the best-fit ΛCDM and constant-density core mass models to very large galactocentric radii, comparable to the size of the dark matter halo. A comparison of the predicted mass with the M 31 mass determined at such large radii using other dynamical tracers, confirms the validity of our results. In particular the ΛCDM dark halo model which best fits the 21-cm data well reproduces the mass of M 31 traced out to 560 kpc. Our best estimate for the total mass of M 31 is 1.3 1012 , with 12% baryonic fraction and only 6% of the baryons in the neutral gas phase.
Key words: galaxies: ISM / galaxies: individual M 31 / galaxies: kinematics and dynamics / dark matter / radio lines: galaxies
© ESO, 2010