Vol. 611
In section 9. The Sun

Chromospheric heating during flux emergence in the solar atmosphere

by J. Leenaarts, J. de la Cruz Rodriguez, S. Danilovic, G. Scharmer, and M. Carlsson A&A 611, A28

This study shows the clear correspondence between the emission seen in the solar chromosphere during the emergence of magnetic flux and the strength of the horizontal magnetic field in the low chromosphere. This is direct confirmation of the major role the magnetic field and currents that are induced during the flux emergence play in energizing the chromosphere.