EDP Sciences
Free Access
Issue
A&A
Volume 581, September 2015
Article Number A48
Number of page(s) 60
Section Interstellar and circumstellar matter
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201526275
Published online 02 September 2015

Online material

Table 2

Lines detected in the survey of Orion-KL.

Table 4

Spatial origin of molecules detected by our 1.3 cm line survey.

Appendix A: The observed properties of detected lines in the survey

Table A.1

Transitions of recombination lines.

Table A.2

Observed properties of NH3, 15NH3 and NH2D transitions.

Table A.3

Observed properties of CH3OH transitions.

Table A.4

Observed properties of SO2 and OCS transitions.

Table A.5

Observed properties of CH3OCHO transitions.

Table A.6

Observed properties of H2O, HDO, CH3CN, HC3N, HC5N, CH3OCH3, H2CO and HNCO transitions.

Appendix B: Zoom-in plots of observed spectra

thumbnail Fig. B.1

Observed spectrum of Orion KL from 17.9 to 26.2 GHz. The displayed frequency scale is based on the Local Standard of Rest velocity 0 km s-1.

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thumbnail Fig. B.2

Observed Hα, Heα and Cα transitions indicated by dashed lines with n and Δn (see Sect. 4.1) also given. He63α is blended with H79β while He65α is blended with SO2 (52,4 − 61,5). The velocity scale refers to the respective Hα line in each panel.

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thumbnail Fig. B.3

Observed Hβ and Heβ transitions indicated by dashed lines with n and Δn also given. H79β is blended with He63α while H81β is blended with NH3 (3, 3). The velocity scale refers to the respective Hβ line in each panel.

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thumbnail Fig. B.4

Observed Hγ and Heγ transitions indicated by dashed lines with n and Δn also given. The velocity scale refers to the respective Hγ line in each panel. The spectrum near He100γ is NH3 (6,2).

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thumbnail Fig. B.5

Observed Hδ and Heδ transitions indicated by dashed lines with n and Δn also given. The velocity scale refers to the respective Hδ line in each panel.

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thumbnail Fig. B.6

Observed Hε and Heε transitions indicated by dashed lines with n and Δn also given. The velocity scale refers to the respective Hε line in each panel.

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thumbnail Fig. B.7

Observed Hζ transitions indicated by dashed lines with n and Δn also given. The velocity scale refers to the respective Hζ line in each panel.

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thumbnail Fig. B.8

Observed Hη transitions indicated by dashed lines with n and Δn also given. The velocity scale refers to the respective Hη line in each panel.

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thumbnail Fig. B.9

Observed Hθ transitions indicated by dashed lines with n and Δn also given. The velocity scale refers to the respective Hθ line in each panel.

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thumbnail Fig. B.10

Observed Hι, Hκ and Hλ transitions indicated by dashed lines with n and Δn also given. The velocity scale refers to the respective Hι, Hκ and Hλ lines in each panel.

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thumbnail Fig. B.11

Observed NH3 transitions with quantum numbers indicated in the upper right of each panel.

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thumbnail Fig. B.12

Observed 15NH3 and NH2D transitions with a one-component Gaussian fit shown (red lines). Quantum numbers are indicated in the upper right of each panel.

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thumbnail Fig. B.13

Observed CH3OH and 13CH3OH transitions with a one-component Gaussian fit shown (red lines). Species and quantum numbers are given in the upper right of each panel.

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thumbnail Fig. B.14

Observed SO2 and OCS transitions (black lines) with a two- or three-component Gaussian fit shown together with the individual Gaussian components (red lines). Species and quantum numbers are given in the upper right of each panel. Note that SO2 (52,4–61,5) is blended with He65α at 23 413.8 MHz and SO2 (123,9–132,12) is blended with He107δ at 20 333.8 MHz.

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thumbnail Fig. B.15

Observed CH3OCHO transitions with one Gaussian fit shown (red lines). Species and quantum numbers are given in the upper right of each panel. In the CH3OCHO (21,2–11,1 E) and CH3OCHO (21,2–11,1 A) panels, the blue dashed lines represent the systemic velocities.

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thumbnail Fig. B.16

Observed HC3N, CH3CN, HDO, H2O, HNCO, H2CO, CH3OCH3, HC5N, and CH3CH2CN transitions. Species and quantum numbers are indicated in the upper right of each panel. For HC3N, CH3CN, HNCO, and CH3CH2CN, the spectra are fitted with the HFS method indicated by red lines. For the HDO and CH3OCH3 transitions which are blended, their systemic velocity is indicated by blue dashed lines.

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Appendix C: The ALMA maps of detected molecules and comparisons with other studies

We make use of the ALMA line survey archival data to study the distribution of molecules detected by our 1.3 cm line survey. The transitions used are listed in Table C.1. Figure C.1 shows the channel maps of these transitions. Note that the first [0,2] km s-1  panel of NH2D (32,2s − 31,2a) is contaminated by H2CO (91,8 − 91,9) at 21 6268.7 MHz.

Recently, Feng et al. (2015) studied Orion KL using combined SMA and IRAM 30 m data, which covers parts of the frequency range of the ALMA-SV data. Here, we make a brief comparison between these data. By comparing the dust continuum emission in both datasets, mm2 in Feng et al. (2015) is resolved into MM4, MM5, and MM6 by ALMA. On the other hand, the dust continuum sources SR, NE, OF1N, and OF1S in Feng et al. (2015) are not detected in the ALMA-SV data. A comparsion of OCS (18–17) demonstrates that Feng et al. (2015) show more extended emission while the ALMA-SV data display more sub-structures. That is because the ALMA-SV data have a higher spatial resolution but lack short spacing and have a smaller primary beam.

We also estimate the flux loss by comparing the ALMA-SV data with those obtained with the IRAM-30 m single dish telescope. We make use of HC3N (24–23) from Esplugues et al. (2013a), OCS (18–17) from Tercero et al. (2010), and SO2 (115,7 − 124,8) from Esplugues et al. (2013b). Based on the telescope information10, we use a forward efficiency of 94%, a main

beam efficiency of 63%, and a conversion factor from brightness temperature to flux of 7.5 Jy/K to derive the total flux observed by the IRAM-30 m telescope. Meanwhile, the IRAM-30 m telescope has a spatial resolution of ~12′′, covering most emitting regions in Orion KL, so the IRAM-30 m data can be considered to represent the total flux densities of Orion KL. By integrating the whole regions of the ALMA-SV data, we find that the ALMA-SV data can account for 89% of the HC3N (24–23), 57% of the OCS (18–17), and 44% of the SO2 (115,7 − 4,8) emission.

Table C.1

Transitions from the ALMA line survey..

thumbnail Fig. C.1

Molecular line channel maps (contours) overlaid on the 230 GHz continuum map (grey). Grey shadings of the continuum image are 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% of the peak intensity of 1.406 Jy beam-1. The contour levels of the molecular line images start at 5σ and continue in steps of 5σ, where the σ value for each transition is shown in the first panel in units of Jy beam-1. The dotted contours are the negative features with the same contour absolute levels as the positive ones in each panel. The symbols are the same as in Fig. 1. The corresponding molecular transitions are indicated in the upper left of the first panel. The velocity range is given in the lower right of each panel in km s-1. The synthesized beams of the molecular line images are shown in the lower left of each panel. The (0, 0) position in each panel is (αJ2000, δJ2000) = (05h35m14.350s, 05°2235.00′′).

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© ESO, 2015

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