Free Access
Volume 526, February 2011
Article Number A156
Number of page(s) 14
Section Stellar structure and evolution
Published online 14 January 2011

Online material

Appendix A: List of red supergiants considered by de Jager et al. (1988)

The list of RSGs considered by dJ88 are given in Table A.1. The data from dJ88 are the stellar effective temperature T1 (K), the luminosity L1 (L) and the mass-loss rate 1 in  M yr-1. The columns T2 , L2 and 2 give the same quantities as derived in this work. Many mass-loss rates used by dJ88 (1) came from the exploitation and analysis of infrared flux measurements between 3.5 and 11.5 μm (Gehrz & Woolf 1971). The mass-loss rates of Hagen (1982) are derived from flux measurements at 20 and 25 μm. The mass-loss rates of Sanner (1976) are based on high-resolution spectral profiles of strong resonance lines. For objects with 1 based on several individual determinations (from four to nine determinations for μ Cep and α Ori, respectively), see the details in de Jager et al. (1988).

Table A.1

List and data for the RSGs considered by dJ88.

Appendix B: Photometric data of the studied RSGs

Table B.1 presents the magnitudes in the UBVIJHK filters and the IRAS fluxes at 12, 25, and 60 μm that were used to calculate the flux averaged wavelength λm, and the luminosities L. If a magnitude in the above filters was not available, we used the following relations, which were established from the sample data:

Table B.1

Adopted photometry for calculating L and λm. The UBVIJHKL are in magnitudes, and the fluxes f are in Janskys.

Appendix C: Wind expansion velocities

Figure C.1 shows the wind expansion velocities of several RSGs plotted versus luminosity. The Galactic RSG data are from Table 2 of this paper. The LMC RSG data are from Marshall et al. (2004, their Table 1 for luminosities and their Table 2 for expansion velocities). The error bars represent typical uncertainties on luminosity,  ±30% for the Galaxy and  ±20% for the LMC. The straight lines have the slope predicted by Habing et al. (1994) for dust-driven winds and were used in Jura’s formula for red supergiants lacking a wind velocity measurement.

thumbnail Fig. C.1

Wind expansion velocity, in km s-1, as a function of luminosity (in L), for Galactic RSGs (lower panel), and LMC RSGs (upper panel). The straight line for Galactic RSGs corresponds to V = 20   (L/105)0.35 in km s-1. The straight line for LMC RSGs corresponds to V = 14   (L/105)0.35.

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