Number of lethal events per bins of 500 Myr as a function of the Galactic radius and loockback time. Shaded contours (corresponding to the green, yellow, and red color bar) show the number of lethal events (SSGRBs+LGRBs+SNs) per 500 Myr as a function of the distance from the Galactic center (x-axis) throughout the cosmic history of the Milky Way (y-axis). The line contours (corresponding to the blue-scale color bar) show the surface number density of TPs around M stars (solid lines) and FGK stars (dashed lines). The current position of the Solar System is marked by the yellow dot. The Galaxy disk portion that extends ∼2 and ∼8 kpc away from the Galaxy center, where the TP density is relatively higher, represents the place in which life in the past 4 Gyr might have experienced less frequent major damages as a result of ozone depletion induced by transient astrophysical events.
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