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Fig. 5


Period ratios of adjacent planetary pairs of all planets in the simulations (including the small bodies) after 3 Myr (end of the gas disc phase) and 100 Myr (dashed). In addition, we show the period distribution including only planets with masses larger than 0.5 Jupiter masses after 100 Myr (long-dashed lines). We do not observe a significant pile-up of planets close to mean-motion resonances, in contrast to the super-Earth simulations of Izidoro et al. (2019), which we attribute to the slower migration speed in the here used simulations, which prevents the formation of resonant chains at the inner edge of the protoplanetary discs. Nevertheless, the systems become unstable and the instabilities result in a wide spacing of the planets after 100 Myr.

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