Volume 650, June 2021
|Number of page(s)||35|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||22 June 2021|
Formation of planetary systems by pebble accretion and migration
Hot super-Earth systems from breaking compact resonant chains
UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista - Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital & Planetologia,
CEP 12516-410 São Paulo,
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
3 Laboratoire d’astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France
4 Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, 22100 Lund, Sweden
5 Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Boulevard de l’Observatoire, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France
6 Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
Accepted: 26 March 2021
At least 30% of main sequence stars host planets with sizes of between 1 and 4 Earth radii and orbital periods of less than 100 days. We use N-body simulations including a model for gas-assisted pebble accretion and disk–planet tidal interaction to study the formation of super-Earth systems. We show that the integrated pebble mass reservoir creates a bifurcation between hot super-Earths or hot-Neptunes (≲15 M⊕) and super-massive planetary cores potentially able to become gas giant planets (≳15 M⊕). Simulations with moderate pebble fluxes grow multiple super-Earth-mass planets that migrate inwards and pile up at the inner edge of the disk forming long resonant chains. We follow the long-term dynamical evolution of these systems and use the period ratio distribution of observed planet-pairs to constrain our model. Up to ~95% of resonant chains become dynamically unstable after the gas disk dispersal, leading to a phase of late collisions that breaks the original resonant configurations. Our simulations naturally match observations when they produce a dominant fraction (≳95%) of unstable systems with a sprinkling (≲5%) of stable resonant chains (the Trappist-1 system represents one such example). Our results demonstrate that super-Earth systems are inherently multiple (N ≥ 2) and that the observed excess of single-planet transits is a consequence of the mutual inclinations excited by the planet–planet instability. In simulations in which planetary seeds are initially distributed in the inner and outer disk, close-in super-Earths are systematically ice rich. This contrasts with the interpretation that most super-Earths are rocky based on bulk-density measurements of super-Earths and photo-evaporation modeling of their bimodal radius distribution. We investigate the conditions needed to form rocky super-Earths. The formation of rocky super-Earths requires special circumstances, such as far more efficient planetesimal formation well inside the snow line, or much faster planetary growth by pebble accretion in the inner disk. Intriguingly, the necessary conditions to match the bulk of hot super-Earths are at odds with the conditions needed to match the Solar System.
Key words: planets and satellites: formation / planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability / planets and satellites: detection / planets and satellites: composition / methods: numerical / planet-disk interactions
© ESO 2021
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.