Volume 643, November 2020
|Number of page(s)||25|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||03 November 2020|
The eccentricity distribution of giant planets and their relation to super-Earths in the pebble accretion scenario
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie,
2 Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences, MS 126, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
3 UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista – Grupo de Dinàmica Orbital Planetologia, Guaratinguetà, CEP 12.516-410, São Paulo, Brazil
Accepted: 24 September 2020
Observations of the population of cold Jupiter planets (r >1 AU) show that nearly all of these planets orbit their host star on eccentric orbits. For planets up to a few Jupiter masses, eccentric orbits are thought to be the outcome of planet–planet scattering events taking place after gas dispersal. We simulated the growth of planets via pebble and gas accretion as well as the migration of multiple planetary embryos in their gas disc. We then followed the long-term dynamical evolution of our formed planetary system up to 100 Myr after gas disc dispersal. We investigated the importance of the initial number of protoplanetary embryos and different damping rates of eccentricity and inclination during the gas phase for the final configuration of our planetary systems. We constrained our model by comparing the final dynamical structure of our simulated planetary systems to that of observed exoplanet systems. Our results show that the initial number of planetary embryos has only a minor impact on the final orbital eccentricity distribution of the giant planets, as long as the damping of eccentricity and inclination is efficient. If the damping is inefficient (slow), systems with a larger initial number of embryos harbour larger average eccentricities. In addition, for slow damping rates, we observe that scattering events are already common during the gas disc phase and that the giant planets that formed in these simulations match the observed giant planet eccentricity distribution best. These simulations also show that massive giant planets (above Jupiter mass) on eccentric orbits are less likely to host inner super-Earths as they get lost during the scattering phase, while systems with less massive giant planets on nearly circular orbits should harbour systems of inner super-Earths. Finally, our simulations predict that giant planets are not single, on average, but they live in multi-planet systems.
Key words: accretion, accretion disks / planets and satellites: formation / protoplanetary disks / planet–disk interactions
© B. Bitsch et al. 2020
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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