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Fig. 4


Distances of adjacent planetary pairs of all planets in the simulations starting with 60 planetary embryos (including the small bodies) after 3 Myr (end of the gas disc phase, top) and 100 Myr (dashed, bottom). In addition, we show the distances after 3 Myr only for planets larger than 0.5 Jupiter masses (long-dashed, middle panel), to indicate how the stability of the system is influenced by the larger bodies. The black vertical line marks a separation of mutual Hill radii, at which two planets on circular orbits avoid mutual encounters for all time (Gladman 1993). We only show the separation in units of mutual Hill radii for simulations with initially 60 bodies. The trends are very similar for simulations with 15 and 30 initial embryos.

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