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Table 5.

Upper limits to cyanoketene and the line parameters used to calculate them in each of the sets of observations.

Source Frequency Transition Eu Sijμ2 Q (Qrot, Qvib) (a) NT N(H2) XH2 Refs.
(MHz) () (K) (bye2) (cm−2) (cm−2) N(H2)
NGC 6334I ( * )294595.9 266, 20 − 265, 21 137.0 58.2 23610 (18112, 1.30) ≤6.6 × 1015
Sgr B2(N) (b) 26251.4 51, 5 − 41, 4 5.1 38.1 129 (129, 1.00) ≤3.6 × 1012 1 × 1024 ≤4 × 10−12 1
Sgr B2(N) (c) ( * )102317.1 193, 17 − 183, 16 60.7 146.9 18642 (15178, 1.23) ≤2.4 × 1015 1 × 1024 ≤2 × 10−9 1
Barnard 1 101463.0 42, 3 − 31, 2 7.7 8.4 365 (365, 1.00) ≤3.1 × 1011 1.5 × 1023 ≤2 × 10−12 3
IRAS 4A 88954.8 171, 17 − 161, 16 39.8 134.3 1111 (1111, 1.00) ≤1.2 × 1012 3.7 × 1023 ≤4 × 10−12 3
L1157B1 ( * )91519.7 175, 13 − 165, 12 71.7 123.1 5529 (5366, 1.03) ≤8.9 × 1011 1 × 1021 ≤9 × 10−10 3
L1157mm ( * )102294.4 195, 15 − 185, 14 81.3 140.2 5529 (5366, 1.03) ≤1.1 × 1012 6 × 1021 ≤2 × 10−10 3
L1448R2 ( * )102317.1 193, 17 − 183, 16 60.7 146.9 5529 (5366, 1.03) ≤1.7 × 1012 3.5 × 1023 ≤5 × 10−12 4
L1527 102979.2 42, 2 − 31, 3 7.7 8.1 480 (479, 1.00) ≤2.2 × 1011 2.8 × 1022 ≤8 × 10−12 4
L1544 83332.5 62, 5 − 61, 6 10.6 13.5 365 (365, 1.00) ≤2.3 × 1011 5 × 1021 ≤5 × 10−11 5
SVS13A ( * )241325.9 185, 13 − 184, 14 76.4 39.7 8906 (8262, 1.08) ≤3.9 × 1015 3 × 1024 ≤1 × 10−9 6
TMC1 150522.0 33, 0 − 22, 1 13.2 11.1 213 (213, 1.00) ≤3.3 × 1011 1 × 1022 ≤3 × 10−11 3

Notes.

(a)

Calculated at the excitation temperature assumed for the source. See Table 3.

(b)

GBT (PRIMOS) Observations.

(c)

IRAM 30 m Observations.

( * )The spectral line used to calculate the upper limit is a blend of multiple, closely spaced transitions of cyanoketene whose intensities each contribute to the total intensity of the signal. The displayed transitions are representative only – the upper limit was derived using the co-added intensities of all transitions convolved with the appropriate line shape function.

References. [1] Lis & Goldsmith (1990); [2] Crockett et al. (2014); [3] Cernicharo et al. (2018); [4] Jørgensen et al. (2002); [5] Vastel et al. (2014); [6] Chen et al. (2009).

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