3D, 1D, and ⟨3D⟩ temperature structures as a function of Rosseland optical depth for benchmark stars. The blue-shaded regions indicate the kinetic temperature distributions in the representative snapshot from the 3D convection simulations. The stellar parameters are given in the inset. We note that ⟨3D ⟩ models are provided only to illustrate the difference between the average structure of the 1D and 3D models, however, the ⟨3D ⟩ are not used in our abundance analysis.
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